The research focuses on empirical estimates of what Russians think about everyday corruption in Russia. We use LITS, WVS and RLMS-HSE data sets. It was discovered concave dependence of corruption expectations on age and positive on income. Level of education and town habitation increase confidence in necessity of bribes. Retrospective questions confirm that corruption did not decrease in Russia during the last decades.
Professional training of workers is not limited to formal education. Job-related training is important part of lifelong learning. It develops employees` skills and knowledge, so it increases competitiveness of workers and firms. One of the main features of the additional training in Russia is a huge gap between the percentage of firms with training programs and the share of trained employees. This study is aimed to estimate the involvement of employees in additional training.
The paper studies the sources of gender segregation on the within-firm level and its effect on gender wage gap. In compare to numerous of papers devoted to gender segregation, this research is based on unique personnel data from one of Russian industrial firm for the period from 2002 to 2006. It's shown that generation and fastening of segregated employment structures can be explained, firstly, by initial job assignments and, secondly, by gender differences in promotion paths for male and female workers. Estimations of the gender wage gap afford to conclude that it is largely driven by gender segregation between job positions and hierarchical levels rather than by worker's characteristics.
Оn-the-job training and its economic effiсiency are considered in this article.
This paper is devoted to the analysis of working conditions and characteristics of jobs of foreign-born population in the Russian labor market. The main aim is to display similarities and differences between native workers and foreign-born workers on productivity, employment conditions and job quality.
This article is devoted to the problem of the impact of migration due to the change in the quality of the ecological situation on the labor supply in the cities. Statistical data on the cities of the Volga Federal District shows that despite the high level of air pollutions from stationary sources, the demographic situation in these cities is characterized by migration growth. This can be explained by the fact that a high level of emissions characterizes economically more developed cities with a high level of industrial production, and, as a result, a relatively higher average wage and labor market capacity. Thus in Russian cities one can observe a situation where city residents attach greater importance to economic incentives that accompany industrial development of cities, while the negative effects that accompany such development and express in environmental pollution have not yet been significant with to make a decision about migration to more environmentally friendly cities.
We provide a survey of the research devoted to microeconomic models of combating corruption. We focus on four aspects: interconnection between corruption and competition on markets for goods and services, structure of public bureaucracy and incentives for public officials: efficiency wages and penalties for corruption. We cite the most important theoretical and some empirical papers on these issues, provide detailed disussion of key arguments and illustrate them with basic models.
This article describes the main steps of the analysis of financial-economic activity of autonomous institutions. On the example of consolidated report on execution of the Plan of financial-economic activity the conclusions and suggestions for improving the activity and achievement of the planned indicators are considered. Proposals to change the basic structure of the reporting forms of an autonomous institutions are formulated.
Non-standard employment contracts are not a new phenomenon for the Russian labor market and being increasingly used by Russian enterprises. But their importance to the economy, the impact on employment and wages are still unclear. The positive effect of non-standard employment contracts can be seen in increasing a probability of escaping from the unemployment, in rising a number of employees, and enhancing a probability of their work employment. It is possible that the wages of workers with non-standard employment contracts could be lower than those with standard employment contracts. Using the data stu died (in 2009-2010), the author shows the dynamics of employment and wages growth as a result of using nonstandard employment contracts by Russian enterprises.
The article proposes a new method of structural breaks detection in time series in the piecewise-specified GARCH-models. The method is based on the moving likelihood ratio statistics. In case of absence of structural breaks lower and upper 95 %- and 99 %- bounds were found for the likelihood ratio statistics. The criterion of structural breaks based on these bounds has been worked out. Good properties of the proposed method are supported by Monte Carlo numerical experiments. In the framework of performed calculations it is obtained that the method detects the correct number of structural changes approximately in 88% of cases. In case of correct detection of number of structural changes the moments of the structural breaks are estimated quite accurately. In the absence of structural breaks the proposed method falsely detects structural breaks quite rarely — around 2,5 % of cases. The method is tested on the real data when detecting the structural breaks in the volatility of returns for “Gazprom” ordinary shares.
In the first part author proposes the approach to stimulate cost-reduction R&D with price rigidities. Then author describes the requirements for the stimulation scheme to move to a better location. The second section is about the model of innovation based on a new theory of consumption proposed by K. Lancaster.
A number of papers are reviewed containing social and economic research of commercial sex market (prostitution). A systematic approach to various aspects of prostitution helps reveal and identify its key features as a market and a type of employment, which can form the basis for economic modeling of commercial sex industry.
To compare the results of the Unified State Exams (USE) correction algorithms are proposed to use, which eliminate the difference of statistical characteristics of scores for different subjects. These algorithms are based on the standard probability distributions and the scores are recalculated depending on distributions parameters. After the correction can be more justified to compare the exam scores (inter-regional, interdisciplinary, in different years), as well as to draw conclusions about the attractiveness of the various educational programs for students. Proposed correction algorithms are used to analyze the results of the exam in mathematics and Russian language in Russion regions in 2013. It is shown that the amount of the highest ratings in the region is growing faster, and the number of low ratings slowly than the number of participants in the examination in each region.