Substantiation Of The Size Of The Absolute Rent And Keeping Its Impact On The Management Methods Of Agricultural Sector
The aim of the study is to determine the influence of the formation of absolute rent on the performance of the agricultural sector in Russia, to reveal its relationship with the outflow of the population from the countryside. For this we generalized statistics on the population dynamics of settlements in rural areas from 2002 to 2014. Using the official statistics, the analysis of income was performed and their comparison with the value of the living wage of employment in agriculture from 2005 to 2013 was made. The study clarified the classical concept of the absolute rent, gave its interpretation in the relation to the current practice, calculated its value at different levels of a living wage and salary employment in the agricultural sector, the concept of a rental field was indicated upper and lower limits of the rental of the field and its effect on the livelihoods of rural areas was shown. Dynamics of changes in indicators over the years in the period 2005-2013 was calculated, a list of proposed solutions of the urgent tasks needed to successfully overcome the negative trends in agriculture in the Russian Federation was offered. In particular, there is the need for state regulation of the impact of the economy on the inter-sectoral mobility of capital investments in the synthesis of agriculture and forestry, to promote cooperative relations between large and small farms in the agrarian sector of the economy.
In the monograph authors describe transformation of the agrarian relations in the subject of the Russian Federation for the considerable period of time. This research will be useful for the representatives of managerial practice, scientists, graduate students and students who are interested in problems of the village and methods of their decision.
In conditions of formation of market relations the active application of economic methods of influence on the use of natural resources and the environment becomes an important issue. This activity is the part of the state regulation of the economy. And the task of environmental economics is not reduced to the preparation and maximization of economic benefits in this area. Natural environment is an independent value and in modern conditions the society must use natural resources rationally and efficiently and protect the environment (the so-called existence value)
The author deals with the issues of the variety, systematization and evolution of definitions concerning different forms of taxation and obligations (census, tribute, corvée etc.) in early medieval Europe. Author pays his special interest to late ancient and early medieval legal sources (known as leges barbarorum) as well as to some historical sources (namely The History of the Franks written by Gregory of Tours and Chronicles of Fredegar), Frankish legal formulas of the 6th-8th centuries, Carolingian capitularies and polyptychs of the 9th century. The evidence of the imperial landsurveys of the 4th and 5th centuries confirms universal character of taxation (census and tributum) in late Roman Gaul and Spain. The revival of this tradition attempted by Frankish kings Chlothar I and Childebert II wasn’t such successful as in Visigothic Spain in the 6th century but prevented the total destruction of the system of taxation of Roman and Germanic population before the end of the 7th century. Nevertheless the simplification of rural economy and the growth of monastic estates as well as royal and private land possessions in Western Europe in the 8th and early 9th centuries led to the diminution of freedom and peasant tenures and to the increase of number of their payments and obligations (e.g. most of formerly payable taxes were replaced with food supply, personal services and corvée).
Authors argue how Russia has politically reacted to the crisis. As compared to other Central and Eastern European transition economies, Russia experienced an extremely steep decline of its GDP (about 8% in 2009) during the global financial crisis but managed to maintain and even increase living standards. However, unlike CEE countries, in 2013, Russia already faced a new economic slowdown and entered recession in 2014–2016 after the acceleration of geopolitical tensions with the West within the context of the Ukrainian crisis. In this chapter the authors will show the reasons for the economic slowdown in 2013, including key features of the Russian model of economic development in the 2000s, its crash during the 2008–2009 global financial crisis, and the failed attempts to change the model in 2009–2011. Their analysis is based on the limited access order (LAO) framework formulated by North et al. (2009; 2013). They try to explain the instability of Russian economic growth as the unpreparedness of dominant groups within the ruling elite to restrain their own ambitions and take into account the interests of other players. They also analyze the role of key elite groups (the oligarchs, federal bureaucracy, and siloviki) during every stage of development as well as the role of new elite groups that have also evolved within that system, including the regional bureaucracy, successful medium-sized businesses, and public sector elites. Taking into account political constraints, the authors argue the key drivers and main risks of economic development in Russia. Finally, they discuss conditions for transition to a new model of economic development.
A new book by the economic anthropologist Stephen Gudeman presents the analysis of the balance between self-interest and mutuality in economic relations. It is based on the extensive ethnographic data collected by the author and his colleagues during 20th century. As a theoretical schema Gudeman offers a model of the five institutional spheres: house, community, commerce, finance and meta-finance, in which the combination of the last three characterizes the state of modern capitalism. These spheres, on the one hand, represent a historical sequence that reflects changes in the speed, quantity and level of abstraction in economic transactions. On the other hand, the economic spheres are interdependent and exist simultaneously in close cooperation and conflict. Collaboration works through various linking mechanisms such as rent, barter, money, etc., and conflicts manifest themselves when two sides of the economic life – empathy and competition – confront each other. According to Gudeman, the feature of modern market capitalism is the unrestrained growth of rents. Rents give the banks, manufacturers, sellers of goods and services non-competitive benefits, which are covered by the rhetoric of competition and displace empathy as an important part of economic life. This imbalance creates inequality for household and community as the least protected participants in economic relations. A field anthropologist, Gudeman demonstrates the commitment to disciplinary traditions to advocate and represent the groups under study. For him, these groups are not ethnic, religious or subcultural, but all people living in the mundane rules of the first two economic spheres. Although the measures that Gudeman proposes to restore the balance of self-interest and mutuality can hardly be discussed and certainly won’t be implemented by governments, the book represents an important contribution to the anthropological critique of modern capitalism.
This article is an analytical review of the book “The Russian Path: Ideas, Interests, Institutions, Illusions” by Dmitry Travin, Vladimir Gel'man and Andrei Zaostrovtsev issued by European University at Saint Petersburg Press. Its focus is on breakthroughs and failures of the Russian modernization over the past few decades. Authors use their own approach to the analysis of political and economic transformation processes based on four ‘I’s – Ideas, Interests, Institutions and Illusions. We consistently and carefully examine all these interconnected elements in the review and show their connection to the character of reforms in post-Soviet Russia. We also describe some institutional foundations of economic and political development of modern Russia declared by the authors and delineate how these changes were implemented in forms of ‘technocratic’ policy reforms. Finally, we make some conclusions on the political and economic prospects of Russia. Thus, nine chapters of the study draw a versatile picture of last thirty years – since ‘perestroika’ and collapse of the USSR until contemporary ‘post-Crimean’ political regime. Some limitations of the book reviewed are also outlined in the conclusion. Particularly, its disciplinary isolation in political science and economics, and persisting ideological bias of the authors. The publication interesting for its universalistic view on the issues discussed recommended not only to political scientists, economists or sociologists but also to a wide readership.
The rapidly increasing heterogeneous information volumes make it acute to generalize large amounts of data in order to be able to make strategically proper decisions. Information flows aggregation using traditional analytical tools is becoming difficult. As a result, a lot of new automated data analysis applications, including text-mining tools, are developing. The system of intellectual text data analysis iFORA, developed in ISSEK NRU HSE, is an example of such tool. iFORA capabilities are demonstrated on the beet sugar analysis case.
The collection contains articles by leading scientists and young professionals, dedicated to modern approaches to system research and mathematical modeling of economic, environmental, ecological and economic systems and the rational use of natural resources.
In Intergenerational Equity: Environmental and Cultural Concerns, the editors have produced an important, broad-based volume on intergenerational equity. The authors explore the principle of intergenerational equity in many dimensions, from the theoretical to the practical. While the primary focus is on intergenerational equity in the context of environmental resources and cultural heritage, the principle is also addressed in a broad array of other contexts. The final section of the volume considers intergenerational justice as it applies to indigenous peoples, genocide, migration, sovereign wealth funds and foreign investment. The chapters also provide a critical analysis of the issues and a consideration of the difficulties in implementing intergenerational equity.
Effective management of scientific and technological advancement of Russian agricultural production requires the anticipating monitoring of the existing informational and analytic media in the top-priority spheres of the agriculture. Increasing necessity in the calculation and application of objective and reliable analytical data for the strategic decision making at different levels is forcing the integration of applied analytical tools into analytical systems. These tools are versatile and primarily based on the automatic data processing. The analytical system of text mining is presented as an example of intellectual data analysis and its opportunities
Aquaculture is nowadays one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy. In Russia, however, the volume of aquaculture production is low due to several factors. At the same time, the key regulatory documents of the Federal level pay great attention to the fishery industry, ambitious goals to increase production and exports are set. The implementation of aquaculture development programs should be based, among other things, on the introduction of new technologies, the development of scientific and technological potential and the adaptation of the experience of foreign countries. Planning the development of any industry in the modern world should be comprehensive and systematic, and determining promising technological solutions and management practices requires contemporary and accurate analytical tools. This article proposes the use of strategic analytics as a conceptual approach to the data analysis in terms of their current volume and diversification level. It is proposed to use the iFora big data mining system developed by the HSE as a tool for analysing promising trends in the development of the aquaculture industry. The article proposes the use of semantic analysis of large amounts of textual information as the main method. The proposed methodology will be used in the analysis of the aquaculture industry in subsequent publications.
The New Russian Encyclopedia is a fundamental reference publication in 18 volumes that characterizes nature, population, economy, history, science, art, technology and other important aspects. Contains about 60,000 articles, about 30,000 biographies, about 15,000 color illustrations, maps, charts, diagrams, tables. Leaves since 2003.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.