Social-isms in the Tsarist Borderlands. Poland and Finland in a Contrastive Comparison 1830–1907
Th is article presents a conceptual history of socialism in two Western borderlands of the Russian Empire—namely, the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Finland. A contrastive comparison is used to examine the birth, dissemination, and breakthrough of the concept from its fi rst appearance until the Revolution of 1905. Th e concept entered Polish political conversation as a self-applied label among émigrés in the 1830s, whereas the opponents of socialism made it famous in Finland in the 1840s in Swedish and in the 1860s in Finnish. When socialism became a mass movement at the turn of the century, socialist parties (re)defi ned the concept through underground leafl ets and brochures in Poland, and through a legal labor press in Finland. In both cases, the Revolution of 1905 meant the fi nal democratization of socialism, attaching more meanings to the concept and making it the most discussed ism of modern politics.