Высшее образование в моногородах: организационные форматы, практики, вызовы
The article presents the results of a study of survival strategies of the population in a single-industry town using the example of Chusovoy (Perm Krai). Single-industry towns perform a special role in the economic development of regions and the country in general. The authors have identified the most common survival strategies and the adaptation of the population to the socio-economic situation in a single-industry town. The results of the study indicate that the standards of living in these settlements are relatively low. Measures are currently taken to diversify the economy of single-industry towns and to create new industries and conditions for the development of small and medium-sized businesses and to stabilize employment. It is important to understand the impact of all the mechanisms used. The authors highlight the importance of the current social strategies for adapting to life in a singleindustry town. This analysis of Chusovoy showed the need to develop recommendations to speed up the development of the territory, to reduce the shortcomings in the implementation the TOSER conception (territories of advanced social and economic development), to elaborate other mechanisms for assisting single-industry towns. Taking into account the current survival strategies of the population, it is possible to improve the effectiveness of the implementation of supports mechanism for single-industry towns.
The current study is aimed at the analysis of local development with a focus on the renewal processes in small cities of European Russia. Renewal refers to the introduction of positive changes trough re-opening and re-imagining existing urban areas. Due to the lack of adequate statistical data, we access renewal using a qualitative approach, through the analysis of the material form – the cityscape, which is not only an indicator of the socio-economic situation in the city but also helps to understand the distribution of power relations within it. Empirical data were obtained in three small single-industry towns located remote from major centres – Borovichi (Novgorod oblast), Vyksa (Nizhny Novgorod oblast), Rostov (Yaroslavl oblast). The results of the study suggest that the zone of transformation, successful emergence of the new and change of the old in small cities, is each time unique. Transformation occurs since cities are in search of their own way out of the structural crisis, struggling not only to provide the economic minimum but also to change the cityscape and everyday life. The main actors of this process are private – from large to small business, as well as the local communities. While the role of the local administration due to the lack of resources is, most often, restricted to creating a functioning communication platform to address the interests of the main actors.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.