Высшее образование в моногородах: организационные форматы, практики, вызовы
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
The current study is aimed at the analysis of local development with a focus on the renewal processes in small cities of European Russia. Renewal refers to the introduction of positive changes trough re-opening and re-imagining existing urban areas. Due to the lack of adequate statistical data, we access renewal using a qualitative approach, through the analysis of the material form – the cityscape, which is not only an indicator of the socio-economic situation in the city but also helps to understand the distribution of power relations within it. Empirical data were obtained in three small single-industry towns located remote from major centres – Borovichi (Novgorod oblast), Vyksa (Nizhny Novgorod oblast), Rostov (Yaroslavl oblast). The results of the study suggest that the zone of transformation, successful emergence of the new and change of the old in small cities, is each time unique. Transformation occurs since cities are in search of their own way out of the structural crisis, struggling not only to provide the economic minimum but also to change the cityscape and everyday life. The main actors of this process are private – from large to small business, as well as the local communities. While the role of the local administration due to the lack of resources is, most often, restricted to creating a functioning communication platform to address the interests of the main actors.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.