The article discusses a model for the evaluation of universities and science in general from the point of view of university engagement in the socio-economic environment. The authors conducted a scientometric analysis of the topical area. The primary goal was the identification of various interrelations between some classical scientometric indicators and alternative ones, most clearly reflecting the interaction of science, society, and industry. Three countries were chosen as the object of the study and the five most appropriate research areas. Based on a comparative analysis, we can conclude that traditional scientometric indicators correlate quite well with indicators of social and commercial relevance of scientific research. However, we did not observe this relationship in the case of Brazil; thus, we can infer the influence of the national and disciplinary context. Quantitative indicators are not enough for the evaluation of university engagement, and we do need peer review here.
Given the ambitious national strategies for science, innovations and university development in Russia, the availability
for young highly qualifi ed specialists who can be competitive at the global job market, is vital. At the same time,
as of now, Russia, unlike many other countries, does not have a comprehensive set of initiatives addressing the brain
drain among Russian students that obtain their degrees abroad.
This article provides an analysis of motivations of Russian perspective graduate (master and doctoral) students who plan
to study abroad and emigrate after graduation, as well as the factors that may positively aff ect their decision to return to
Russia. In addition, the research provides an overview of international policies and practices to prevent the brain drain,
and the opportunities for developing such policies in our country.
The article discusses the Monitoring of higher education institutions’ (HEIs’) effectiveness, which has been conducted annually by the Ministry of Education and Science in the last five years. The method of the Monitoring is based on the technology of collecting and systematizing information used by the state accreditation in 1997–2010. The reasons for the introduction of the Monitoring by the Ministry are described; the features of the performance indicators are justified by the state educational policy. A model of presentation of the Monitoring results in the league table format is suggested, which makes it possible to use its results more flexibly for the management of the higher education system. It also allows higher education institutions to analyze their positions and to form their own ways of the development.
Reform of the Russian higher education system is aimed at upgrading quality of universities and changing their role in the development of science and economics of the country. It suggests major change of academic performance evaluation principles and upgrading of university administration’s responsibility for the quality of rendered services. Several universities received special status, several were merged, there is an ongoing change of executive staff at ineffective universities, academic activity financing system is also changing. Eventually it will require rethinking of academic staff functions and tasks as well as structure. Russia literature dos not present complete overview of this problem. Foreign academic publications have demonstrated interest towards administration efficacy for a considerable period of time and the topic of staff numbers increase has been raised many times. This article analyses main trends related to administrative staff changes at foreign higher educational institutions. We describe dynamics of academic and administrative staff numbers, dynamics of administrative costs’ share in the overall costs structure of the university; qualitative changes in the functions of administrative staff during the recent years; provide systematic description of main theoretical explanations for existing processes.
This article is designed to draw attention to such phenomenon as academic diversity of students within universities and specify a research agenda for studying this phenomenon and its relationship with university management. A review of existing literature and statistics on the example of Russia allows for a) identifying the range of possible reasons for the growth of academic diversity in higher education institutions and b) offering basic prerequisites for defining its level. For the first time the article analyses the academic diversity as a contextual variable and the organizational characteristic of higher education institutions, and justifies its significance for university governance and management. Also, the authors provide a range of theoretical framework through which university governance can be analysed in the context of high academic diversity. The continuation of this work will be a more detailed study of practices at such universities. The results of this work can be used to expand the current research agenda in the field of higher education, as well as to analyse and plan the activities of specific universities.
The article is an analytic review of academic research on the topic of universities employing their graduates. It is authors' version of the chapter «Academic Inbreeding: State of the Literature» in: Yudkevich M., Altbach P. G., Rumbley L. E. (Eds). Academic Inbreeding andMobility in Higher Education. Global Perspectives. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. The aim of the article is to systematize and discuss causes, consequences and possible methods of fighting inbreeding which is often viewed as a practice leading to contradictory results for university and academic system in general.
Inbreeding is widely spread in many countries, including Russia and majority of university executives in Russia see it as an admissible thing, in fact, a method of choice. Analysis of the literature on that topic shows that main reasons for that include importance of social networking in employment, limitations existing at the academic labor market, desire to lower the costs of searching and hiring candidates from outside the circle as well as the vision of inbreeding and mobility as of an academic norm. Many researches show that university staff members who graduated from this university are different in terms of many important characteristics (such as publication efficacy, teaching settings, professional networking involvement, etc.). Nevertheless there is no single opinion on inbreeding consequences. One explanation for absence of single opinion on whether inbreeding is positive or negative is that in most countries this practice is typical of more elite universities.
Nevertheless the prevailing opinion is that universities should not hire too many graduates therefore many authors look into ways of preventing inbreeding. The most effective measure against inbreeding is far formal ban, development of an open market and teaching staff mobility stimulation. On the basis of literature analysis authors formulate recommendations on decreasing inbreeding results in Russian universities.
This article is of interest for university executives in charge of personnel and research as well as for researchers dealing with academic work and university management.
The Russian Higher education is a turbulent environment. We can find the main challenges facing modern higher education, such as reducing government funding, integrating Russian universities into the international system of higher education, and changing the structure of competition for teachers and students in the global market. These modern trends are complemented by such factors as the transition to the Bologna process and a significant change in the format of studies in undergraduate and graduate programs. In addition, employers are actively involved in the educational process, who are increasingly making demands on the preparation of "ready-to-work" graduates, which also imposes certain duties on universities. As an additional challenge to modern higher education, we would like to note a change in the requirements for teachers who must combine teaching with research, and not just translate other people's achievements to a student. Also, the format of educational services provision is significantly changing due to introduction of modern technologies, the informatization of the educational process, the active involvement in the educational process of online courses or blended format disciplines. All these changes should be taken into account in the activities of the educational institution. This article examines the issues of organizational culture, leadership and behavioral skills of teachers in the position of programme academic supervisor. The study is based on the analysis of the HSE, the study involved 77 programme academic supervisor of undergraduate and graduate educational programs, which is 34.5 % of the total number of programs (at present, 72 educational programs of undergraduate and 151 graduate programs are being implemented at HSE. Research question. Since 2014, the HSE has been implementing a training model for educational programs, headed by a programme academic supervisor. However, this function is written in documents in a generalized form and, most likely, is understood differently by each of the managers. Accordingly, the purpose of the study is to evaluate the practice of introducing the functionality of a programme academic supervisor using the example of HSE, identify problems and determine the role models of programme academic supervisors based on the model of integrated competing values. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the practice of introducing the functionality of a programme academic supervisor using the example of HSE, identify problems and determine role models of programme academic supervisor based on the model of integrated competing values. As a novelty, it is necessary to highlight the adaptation of the concept of competing values in the development of the role model of the programme academic supervisor of the educational program based on a study of its functionality, resource support and degree of involvement in management processes.
The paper presents key findings from the analysis of the established as well as prospective areas for the Russian HEIs regional engagement. It highlights the impact made by the Siberian Federal University and South Federal University to the regional development. The paper discloses mechanisms of integration of the Russian HEIs to the regional life based on four areas of cooperation such as economic, social, political and technological areas. It also demonstrates innovative capabilities for regions and city regions from the multilateral cooperation between HEIs and other regional stakeholders.
The activity in publications, in particular the total number of publications and the citation index are important criteria for evaluation of efficiency of universities and R&D institutes activities. The paper presents the results analysis of correlation between publication activity and financial support and the financial motivation for staff. The financial mechanisms for supporting scientific research considered as factors, which influenced to the activity in publication of Russian scientists.
Today universities become drivers of technology and business development all over the world. Besides fulfilling traditional tasks of creating new knowledge and competence, higher education institutions play a significant role in developing innovative ecosystems and entrepreneurship. In Russia, however, the interaction of universities and business is forming not as quickly as in developed economies. This article uses qualitative interviews and case analysis to identify and discuss the barriers to effective university-enterprise interaction in Russia. The research is based on expert interviews with representatives of universities and businesses, as well as on the case study of PJSC «LUKOIL» and HEIs interaction. The study showed that the development of university-enterprise interaction meets several barriers rooted in the mismatch of both sides’ expectations of each other. The results of the research also show promising directions for university-business cooperation in Russia.
The paper studies the dynamics of scientific collaborations in leading Russian universities during 2010–2018. The author analyzes both individual and inter-organizational collaboration. Understanding how scientific cooperation is organized, its disciplinary specifics and qualitative differences provides important information for organizing scientific activities in universities. Based on bibliometric data we analyze changes in the number of authors and affiliated organizations according to publications from various scientific fields and quality segments. The sampling of the universities shows the growth of scientific collaboration both among individual scientists and among organizations. The number of works co-authored with Russian organizations is higher than with foreign ones, but the share of such works is rapidly decreasing. In the segment of high quality publications, universities collaborate more often than in the lower quality segment. At the same time, in the high quality segment universities more often collaborate with foreign institutions, whereas in the lower quality segment – with Russian organizations. The highest share of scientific collaboration is observed in physical sciences, the lowest – in social sciences. The analysis is limited by the data, which do not represent all collaborations between scientists.
Policy instrument of research productivity assessment (Research Assessment Exercise, RAE), introduced in the UK by Thatcherite government, usually is discussed as a prototype of neoliberal reforms which took place in the university sector of European countries in 1980 – 2000s. Research and financial efficiency of the sector was declared as the main goal of these reforms. Promotion of market-based instruments and emphasis on the open competition inside the university sector were basic policy principles which influenced the design of RAE. Study of RAE practices and consequences was conducted in the framework of broader project, focused on the systems of university management. The basic data source of the study were (1) interview with UK social scientists, who had significant experience of both academic and administrative work, and (2) official documents, produced in the course of RAE companies.
The methods ensuring agency independence in European countries are analyzed in the paper. It is shown that centralized accreditation system in Russia is not able to ensure agency independence in accordance with Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG). The author recommends and substantiates some changes in Russian laws for ensuring agency independence and democratization of accreditation system.
The article presents the results of a study aimed at identifying universities’ resources and competencies interrelated with their export activities, and at analyzing these interrelations. To achieve this purpose, the indicators of university activities over a four-year period and the dynamics of their changes are analysed. With the help of panel data analysis methods, the relationships between quantitative indicators characterizing the resources, universities’ competencies, and the results of their export activities are estimated. The annual performance indicators of 589 Russian universities are analyzed through four academic years – from the 2013/14 up to the 2016/17. Over the indicated period, 74 % of the universities included in the sample increased the number of foreign students, this growth in most cases being unstable if taken year by year. The universities with positive changes in the number of foreign students show the following resources and competencies: the development of incoming students’ international academic mobility; international teaching staff and a high level of their qualifications; partnership with enterprises for organizing student practice; international cooperation in research. The results of the study may be of interest for universities planning to develop the export of educational services and making decisions on the implementation of measures aimed at attracting foreign students. The paper analyzes the performance of universities having the necessary data for four years in open access. For further research, the list of analyzed indicators can be expanded, with the values of indicators considered for a longer period of time.
This article considers problem of accessibility of quality education for all citizens in spite of their location. The author analyze the influence between universitys location and results and trends of universitys development. The base of this analysis is official statistic information about university activity.
In the spring of 2020, due to the threat of COVID-19, most Russian universities switched to distant learning. The forced transition imposed new demands on faculty and students, who had to adapt quickly to the new educational conditions. These changes have raised concerns about the quality of distant learning. The purpose of this study was to identify which students were more likely to expect difficulties associated with a lack of understanding of educational material under new circumstances. The study is based on data of 6,230 Ural Federal University students surveyed in March 2020. Regression analysis showed that the fear of not being able to cope with learning was more typical for freshmen and sophomores, for students with lower self-regulated learning skills, for students who expected difficulties related to communication with faculty and student motivation, as well as for students who attended classes for the sake of learning. We discuss possible measures to support students in the conditions of rapid and mass transition to distant learning.