Reflexive characteristic adaptations explain sex differences in the Big Five: But not in neuroticism
To date, sex differences in the Big Five personality traits have been thoroughly studied and well-documented. In the present two studies I examined if individual’s opinions and interpretations of personality traits (reflexive characteristic adaptations, RCA) can eliminate these differences. Three RCA―attitudes toward traits, meta-traits, and meta-attitudes toward traits―were investigated. When measuring meta-traits and meta-attitudes toward traits, the images of students’ parents (Study 1) and their best friends (Study 2) were employed as significant others. Study 1 (N = 1,030) revealed that women scored higher than men in neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and openness. However, RCA eliminated these effects, with the exception of neuroticism. These results were largely replicated in Study 2 (N = 333). Women scored higher than men in neuroticism and agreeableness. Again, these differences were eliminated by RCA, although the difference in neuroticism approached statistical significance. This research demonstrates that RCA may explain sex differences in various personality traits. Neuroticism may constitute a special case where men and women still differ in a trait beyond the contribution of RCA. The present study demonstrates that sex differences in the remaining traits may result from one’s interpretations and opinions of these traits rather than from the traits themselves.
The article reveals the genesis of the concept of «individuality». Also provides a description of the essential qualities, given their correlation with the personal qualities of the Big Five. We introduce three methodological principle of personality description, an example of identity based on the basic qualities.
The sex differences of the full amplitude of the spectrum (PAS) of EEG of a wide frequency range of 56 th are investigated- lovek (27 men and 29 women) in the ontogenetic range from 3 to 70 years. Used the 21-channel electroencephalo- graph " Neuron-Spectrum-4 / VP "(Neurosoft, "10-20" by Jasper). Estimation of averaged values of PAS in 21 leads without taking into account individual rhythms (and thus, without taking into account the level of cerebral generation of rhythms), intersex differences are given- no neurodynamic parameter was detected. Taking into account the individual rhythms of EEG (beta-high-frequency, beta- low-frequency, alpha -, theta -, Delta -) there is a distinct tendency to higher absolute values INCREASE of EEG rhythms in men compared to women. In the extreme values of the studied EEG frequency spectrum (high-frequency beta-and slow Delta-rhythm) this trend acquired a reliable character (p<0.05) mainly in the posterior-temporal and Antero-frontal leads. Stable negative correlations (p<0.05) between
Using data from Italy, Spain, and Germany (N = 1,569), this study investigated the role of basic values (universalism and security) and basic traits (openness and agreeableness) in predicting perceptions of the consequences of immigration. In line with Schwartz’s (1992) theory, we conceptualized security as having two distinct components, one concerned with safety of the self (personal security) and the other with harmony and stability of larger groups and of society (group security). Structural equation modeling revealed that universalism values underlie perceptions that immigration has positive consequences and group security values underlie perceptions that it has negative consequences. Personal security makes no unique, additional contribution. Multi-group analyses revealed that these associations are invariant across the three countries except for a stronger link between universalism and perceptions of the consequences of immigration in Spain. To examine whether values mediate relations of traits to perceptions of immigration, we used the Five Factor Model. Findings supported a full mediation model. Individuals’ traits of openness and agreeableness explained significant variance in security and universalism values. Basic values, in turn, explained perceptions of the consequences of immigration.
The subcortical-cortical integration with their relatively small genetic and phenotypic variation (Shepovalnikov, Tsitseroshin, 2007) have a sexual dimorphism, studied in ontogenesis in less detailed compared to the inner – and interhemispheric cortical zones interactions (Panasevizch, 2010). In this regard the general differences research of the most informative EEG-parameters – the full amplitude spectrum (FAS) a wide frequency range of 50 persons (27 males and 23 – female) in a singular ontogenetic range from 3 to 70 years was hold. The 21-channel electroencephalograph "Neiron-Spektr-4/VP" company Neirosoft was used ("10-20" by Jasper, the reference electrodes were placed on the ear lobes). Evaluating the average values PAS in 21 leads without considering the individual rhythms, intersexual differences this neurodynamic parameter is not found. Taking in consideration the separate EEG-rhythms (beta- high-frequency, low-frequency beta, alpha, theta, delta) revealed that sex differences are unknown, and in some cases – quite substantial. A priori the supposition of determined generalization level role, different for different EEG-rhythms (Kuksova, 2009) in gender differentiation formation of this kind aroused. There is the distinct tendency to the higher absolute values PAS men EEG-rhythms than women in this paper. In extreme values of the studied EEG frequency spectrum (high-beta, and delta-slow rhythm), this trend has gained a reliable character (P <0.05) mainly in the posterior temporal and anterior-frontal leads. Stable negative correlation (P <0.05) between the absolute values of the different FAS EEG rhythms and the age of the subjects, expressed not in years, but in months, showed a gradual decrease in the value of this indicator as they mature and aging in the studied ontogenetic series. The regularity prevailed in the direction of convexital surface to a depth of (beta → alpha → theta→ delta), which coincided with the data obtained in our laboratory (Vodolazhskaya, 2009.2010). In males this pattern manifested itself more clearly than in females. The male number of effective (P <0.05) leads in the spectrum was distributed as follows: "3 (beta) → 13 (alpha) → 21 (theta) → 21 (delta), and women as foll ows:" 4 (beta) → 4 (alpha) → 17 (theta) → 18 (delta). This shows that the most striking intersexual differences reported with respect to FAS basic rhythm of EEG. The fall of this magnitude neurodynamic in ontogeny from three to seventy years of age is more pronounced in men than in women, which probably compensated for initially more expressions of male status of the full amplitude electroencephalographic rhythm compared with women.
Objective: The objective of the study was threefold. First, we examined whether extraversion contributes to the evaluations of an online social network user’s physical attractiveness made by professional recruiters. We studied if this relationship is mediated by a degree of user’s activity and popularity among other users. Second, we presumed this relationship to be specified in terms of the five-factor theory of personality. A type of characteristic adaptation named reflected extraversion was assumed to incrementally contribute to this relationship. Reflected extraversion is a meta-perception representing one’s opinion on how extraverted one is as perceived by significant others. Third, user popularity treated as an external influence in terms of the five-factor theory was presumed to reciprocally affect reflected extraversion. Method: Profiles of 188 online social network users were assessed by four professional recruiters. The latter were asked to evaluate the physical attractiveness of the former. The users completed a number of self-report measures. Various behavioural indicators extracted from the profiles were measured. Results: Extraversion enhanced recruiter-rated physical attractiveness via two paths: user activity and user popularity. The inclusion of reflected extraversion failed to improve the model substantially. However, reflected extraversion mediated the link between trait extraversion and the indicators of user popularity but not the indicators of user activity. The reciprocal path from user popularity towards reflected extraversion was negligible. Conclusions: The study shows that extraversion may allow people to efficiently manage online networking to convince recruiters that they are physically attractive, even in the absence of any offline communications.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.