Is in utero exposure to testosterone (approximated by finger 2D:4D ratio) correlated with the perception of wellbeing? The question matters for understanding the role of non-cognitive determinants of economic behavior. We use unique data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) that contains markers for testosterone exposure and find support for the correlation between female 2D:4D and average measures of subjective well-being which include: satisfaction with life, work, wage and economic conditions, and with opportunity for professional growth. The most conclusive results are obtained for the digit ratios of women's right hands. Both linear negative and inverse U-shaped associations were significant subject to multiple controls. Ushaped relationships are also observed in the limited number of regressions for males. Even though the data sets do not allow us to account for problems of endogeneity, the regression analyses suggest that the net direct effect of 2D:4D is small but statistically significant. Note: the DATA ARTICLE is available at https://figshare.com/articles/Patterns_of_2D_4D_and_measures_of_subjective_well-being/10262465/1
Does in utero exposure to testosterone – as proxied by measured 2D:4D digit ratios – affect lifetime educational outcomes? A growing body of work finds 2D:4D to be associated with aggression, physical fitness, performance in computer science, and type of occupation. While most work tends to show a negative relationship between 2D:4D and outcomes, the link between 2D:4D and male aggression should mean that prenatal T could also have negative effects for some outcomes. Using a large sample of families in Moscow and the Moscow region drawn from the Russian RLMS-HSE longitudinal survey, we observe clear links between measured 2D:4D digit ratios and the levels of education obtained by men. Statistically significant positive associations of 2D:4D (lower prenatal T) with higher levels of education were found, using difference in means analysis as well as generalized ordered logit regressions. These findings were also robust to using different subsamples. Weaker findings were seen for women. Since many of the earlier findings have showed the benefits of higher prenatal T for achievement, the current finding of a negative effect of prenatal T on educational attainment raises interesting issues about the ambiguous effects of prenatal T.
Recently, Schwartz et al. (2012) proposed a refined theory of human values distinguishing between 19 values, instead of the original 10, some of which derive from a finer partitioning of previously broader values. Alongside these refinements in the theory a new questionnaire PVQ-RR was developed and has been tested and validated in several different languages. Our study adds to the growing evidence of the validity of the refined theory and instrument. We develop and validate the Icelandic translation of the revised 19-value Portrait Value Questionnaire in a student sample (n = 833) using confirmatory factor analysis and multidimensional scaling. The overall model and the Icelandic translation are well-supported, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the new 19-value partitioning of the Schwartz values continuum in a Nordic culture and language branch.
Individuals with insomnia often report aspects of perfectionism alongside symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, there has been limited examination of these factors together. The current study investigated whether individuals with insomnia report increased perfectionism compared to normal-sleepers. Further, the mediating role of anxiety and depression was examined. Participants were 39 individuals with DSM-5 defined Insomnia Disorder, and 39 normal-sleepers, who completed two measures of multidimensional perfectionism and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results demonstrated that, compared to normal-sleepers, individuals with insomnia display increased perfectionistic traits of: concern over mistakes, doubts about action, and parental criticism. In addition, these differences were partiality mediated by symptoms of anxiety, but not depression. Our findings highlight the significance of treating symptoms of anxiety with the prospect of alleviating negative thoughts concerning one's mistakes, doubts about action, and perception of parental criticism, which may contribute to insomnia.
This study examines perfectionism among a sample of 183 Russian college students. Psychometric properties of the Russian version of the Short Almost Perfect Scale (SAPS) were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported the Russian SAPS factor structure. Results also indicated adequate reliability and validity of the SAPS in this Russian sample. Participants were further classified into different types of perfectionists—adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists—using latent profile analysis. As expected, maladaptive perfectionists reported higher levels of both anxiety and depressive mood compared to adaptive perfectionists; however the stress level between these two types of perfectionists was not significantly different. Cultural contexts, practical implications, and future directions were also discussed.
We used a sample consisting of university students from 14 cultures.
Four conceptions of happiness emerged from principal component analysis on a 19-item scale.
Relationships between conceptions of happiness and life satisfaction were examined.
Multi-level modeling showed that self-transcendence and conservation predicted life satisfaction positively.
Self-directed hedonism interacted with self-enhancement in predicting life satisfaction.
This study examined the relationship between 4 conceptions of happiness and life satisfaction in a sample of 2715 university students across 14 national groups. The 4 conceptions were self-transcendence, self-directed hedonism, conservation, and self-enhancement, which emerged from a principal component analysis of a 19-item scale generated for the purpose of the present study. Results of multi-level modeling showed that self-transcendence and conservation predicted life satisfaction positively and significantly. In addition, we found that self-directed hedonism and self-enhancement interacted in their effects on life satisfaction.
There are many studies revealing factors which influence the demand for financial services. However genetic features, determining the individual's overall postnatal behaviour, have not been studied within this context. This paper extends the previous literature by studying to what extent individual biological endowment, proxied by prenatal testosterone (PT, measured by the 2D:4D ratio), can determine personal demand for bank services and insurance. We use the data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) of 2011–2012. Our findings confirm the existence of the link between inherent biological variation and financial inclusion: PT affects the use of bank cards, intention to borrow from a bank, having a bank deposit and the consumption of insurance products.
The link between temperament and behavioral problems in adolescents is clearly established in literature. There are also well-replicated gender differences in temperament and behavior problems in general. The goal of our study is to find out if gender differences exist on the intersection of these two domains as well. Behavioral problems were measured with Achenbach’s YSR, temperament traits – with Rothbart’s EATQ-R. The sample consisted of 145 girls, 206 boys, 10-14 years old. First we confirmed gender differences in YSR and EATQ-R scales scores using a one-way ANOVA. There was a significant effect of gender on the following temperament scales: fear (F(1, 347) = 7.82, p=0.005), high intensity pleasure (F(1, 326) = 13.43, p=0.000), depressive mood (F(1, 325) = 17.88, p=0.000), activation control (F(1, 327) = 13.15, p=0.000), low intensity pleasure (F(1, 328) = 11.06, p=0.001). Gender also had a significant effect on externalizing disorders (F(1, 347) = 7.83, p=0.005), but not internalizing disorders. Next we compared pairs of correlations by gender between the two domains and tested the significance of the differences using Fisher’s transformation. Shyness with internalizing disorders was the only pair that showed a difference significant at the 0.05 level, boys having a higher coefficient (r=0.51), than girls (r=0.35). Our study shows that gender differences in the relationships of temperament and behavioral problems exist, but are comparatively rare.
Imposter syndrome is feeling incompetent despite evidence of competence. It is characterized by the inability to internalize one's status and success, which causes much emotional distress. People with imposter syndrome fear that others will eventually find out that they are frauds and thus feel that they do not belong in their academic or working environment despite objective qualifications, achievements, and accomplishments. Perfectionism has been linked to imposter syndrome due to a tendency to focus on one's inadequacies. In this study, participants were 169 Russian college students. Mediating and moderating effects of imposter syndrome on the link between perfectionism and psychological distress were examined. Results indicated that imposter syndrome fully mediated the link between perfectionism and anxiety, whereas it served as a partial mediator between perfectionism and depression. A significant moderation effect of imposter syndrome was found between the link of perfectionism and depressive mood. In sum, it appears that if a person does not fall into the imposter mindset, the positive link between perfectionistic discrepancy and depression no longer exists. Results of this study identify imposter syndrome as a point of intervention to prevent depression caused by perfectionism.
To date, sex differences in the Big Five personality traits have been thoroughly studied and well-documented. In the present two studies I examined if individual’s opinions and interpretations of personality traits (reflexive characteristic adaptations, RCA) can eliminate these differences. Three RCA―attitudes toward traits, meta-traits, and meta-attitudes toward traits―were investigated. When measuring meta-traits and meta-attitudes toward traits, the images of students’ parents (Study 1) and their best friends (Study 2) were employed as significant others. Study 1 (N = 1,030) revealed that women scored higher than men in neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and openness. However, RCA eliminated these effects, with the exception of neuroticism. These results were largely replicated in Study 2 (N = 333). Women scored higher than men in neuroticism and agreeableness. Again, these differences were eliminated by RCA, although the difference in neuroticism approached statistical significance. This research demonstrates that RCA may explain sex differences in various personality traits. Neuroticism may constitute a special case where men and women still differ in a trait beyond the contribution of RCA. The present study demonstrates that sex differences in the remaining traits may result from one’s interpretations and opinions of these traits rather than from the traits themselves.
Do people judge personality using criteria different from the abstract perspective on a trait presented in conventional questionnaires? And if they do, what does it mean for the relation between personality and diverse life outcomes? With regard to the five-factor theory, these and associated issues are addressed by outlining an examination of a novel subclass of characteristic adaptations which I term reflexive. Reflexive characteristic adaptations (RCA) represent opinions and interpretations by means of which individuals monitor, and reflect on, their personality traits and the personality traits idea in general. In this study I have addressed three types of RCA: attitudes toward traits, meta-traits, and meta-attitudes toward traits. I was interested in the relationships between RCA and two types of external outcomes – online social networking (OSN) behavior and academic achievement. A sample of 1030 undergraduate students aged from 17 to 38 years (M = 19.65, SD = 1.72) was employed. Personality traits correlated indirectly with both OSN behavior (n = 830) and academic achievement (n = 739) via RCA. The contribution of meta-traits was different from that of attitudes toward traits and meta-attitudes toward traits. These contributions were either compensatory or amplifying. The implications of RCA are discussed.
Previous studies have highlighted the fact that the associations of cortisol with SS are still controversial (ex.: Croissant et al., 2008; Rosenblitt et al., 2001; Zuckerman, 1994). The relationship between cortisol level, sensation seeking and alcohol and smoking habits is the task of this study. Saliva samples were taken from 159 students to measure salivary cortisol concentrations. Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale was used to assess different aspects of SS. The group with high and low SS revealed no significant correlations between cortisol level and SS scores. Group with average SS scores has negative correlations between cortisol level and “sensation seeking” (r = −0.26, p < 0.01) “thrill and adventure seeking” (r = −0.29, p < 0.01). Alcohol habit positively correlates with “thrill and adventure seeking” (r = 0.41, p < 0.01) and “activity–passivity” (r = 0.43, p < 0.01) only at high level of SS. Smoking habits has no significant correlations. Cortisol level positively correlate with smoking habits (r = 0.31, p < 0.01) in group with low SS scores.
There has been increasing evidence that androgen exposure affects interest in various occupations in sexspecific ways. But the most recent large scale study in this area (Hell & Päbler, 2011) was based on online surveys of occupational interest rather than actual choices. Our paper is based on a large scale survey of working age Russians from the Moscow region who also consented to have measurements of their fingers taken. Using the Holland classification of job types, we observed that women in enterprising occupations exhibited lower measured 2D:4D ratios (higher prenatal testosterone exposure) than average while those in conventional and social work had higher 2D:4D ratios. There were also a number of significant differences in average 2D:4D ratios between people in different occupational groups. In general it is consistent with views that low 2D:4D is associated with more male-specific interests and high 2D:4D with more stereotypical female interests. But interpretation of the results depends on the relative accuracy of the Holland typology and may be influenced by the fact that similar groupings may mask different types of jobs for men and women within the same Holland occupational class.