Эпидемия ВИЧ: социальная проблема или новая моральная паника? (Социологическое обоснование)
2016 marked the next phase of the protracted social crisis. Economic instability and tension in the international political arena ensured the maintenance of affective reactions in the social environment, thereby providing opportunities for media controllers to build manipulative schemes. The most widespread form of affective reactions is moral panics.
In 2016 media controllers made an attempt to construct a moral panic, presenting the problem of HIV spread as an epidemic. Using the tools of symbolization and exaggeration, journalists complicated the phenomenon familiar to the public, interpreting it as a forerunner of a social catastrophe. Thus, the HIV epidemic has become the basis for the production of the second-order moral panic, cultivated on social grounds, prearranged by a prior wave of the events of social reality.
According to the results of the study it is concluded that there are two media strategies: inspiring moral panic and its containment. The example of constructing a moral panic concerning the HIV epidemic by LIFE has demonstrated the fallacy of the chosen strategy, since due to the lack of media tandem this phenomenon has not caused long-term affective reactions in the social environment. The main federal channels (for example, First Channel) promoted the need for HIV prevention. The rhetoric of regional channels (STRC “Orenburg”, TRK “TC-Region”) corresponded fully to the strategy of the federal mass media and was focused on the adaptation of HIV-infected people in the society.
To conclude, the spread of HIV in Russian cities has reached a critical level in 2016 and it has been defined as a real social problem that requires consolidated solutions on the part of the society and the state. The increase of public awareness and knowledge – millions of people across the country get interested in their HIV status (only in the Urals the number of people who tested for HIV has increased by 3%) can be considered as a constructive consequence of this problem coverage by federal and regional mass media.
dance4life is a globally active organization within the fields of HIV, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and the Millennium Development Goals, specifically aiming to establish a social youth movement consisting of 1 million agents4change by 2014. The central mission of dance4life is to power a movement that creates change at global and community level by taking action to improve young people’s SRHR, and in particular, improving access to sexuality education and youth-friendly services, and to challenge stigma and discrimination and break down taboos that surround sexuality, especially focusing on HIV and AIDS. KIT was invited to partner with dance4life on an impact assessment of dance4life’s work, with a focus on mixed methods and the involvement of the young people themselves. The assessment took place in two countries: Uganda and Russia. A pilot study was undertaken in the Netherlands to test the qualitative research instruments.
This chapter analyses the various ways Russian print media present the deinstitutionalisation of child welfare. The authors argue that media coverage of childcare policies legitimates the ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ agents and practices. By doing so, the media construct a social problem and demarcate symbolic boundaries along several sociopolitical divides, thereby attempting to achieve control through the promotion of an ‘us vs. them’ discourse in Russian public discussions. The authors find that the search for ‘who is to blame’ begins with foreign adoptive parents, and then shifts towards domestic actors in the field of patronat and juvenile justice. It was revealed that many children are on the margins; as the metaphor of ‘last-minute’ children, raised in one article, shows, they are only adopted unexpectedly and, in many cases, not at all. Some themes are missing or very rarely mentioned in the newspapers examined in this study, including professionalisation of care that relates to children’s rights. Children are generally treated as an object than a subject of social relations, victims of circumstances, the living outcome of deficiencies of state institutional upbringing, or a result of poor decisions made by birth parents
The article considers the folklore reaction to a new uniform of employees of the Russian Post on the background of the folklore portrait of the Russian Post as a whole. Jokes, anecdotes, memes and photo collages, accentuating the unreliability and low delivery of mail, serve as a background for making fun of a new uniform resembling the Gestapo
Background Timely assessment of HIV/AIDS burden is essential for policy-setting and program evaluation. Based on the Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, ART coverage and mortality for 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. Methods For countries without high quality vital registration data, we estimated prevalence and incidence from antenatal clinic data and population-based sero-prevalence surveys and assumptions by age and sex on initial CD4 distribution at infection, CD4 progression rates, on and off antiretroviral therapy mortality (ART), and mortality from all other causes. Our estimation strategy links the GBD 2015 assessment of all-cause mortality and estimation of incidence and prevalence so that for each draw from the uncertainty distribution all assumptions used in each step are internally consistent. Estimation of incidence, prevalence and death uses GBD versions of the EPP and Spectrum software originally developed by UNAIDS. These versions have been recoded for speed and use updated assumptions from systematic reviews of the literature and GBD demographic data. For countries with high quality vital registration data, we developed the Cohort Incidence Bias Adjustment model to estimate HIV incidence and prevalence largely from the number of deaths due to HIV recorded in cause of death statistics. Cause of death statistics have been corrected for garbage coding and HIV misclassification. Findings Globally, HIV incidence reached its peak in 1997 at 3.3 million. Annual incidence has stayed relatively constant at about 2.5 million since 2005 after a period of faster decline between 1997 and 2005. The number of people living with HIV/AIDS has been steadily increasing and reached 38.8 million in 2015. At the same time, mortality due to HIV/AIDS has been declining at a steady pace from its peak at 1.8 million deaths in 2005 to 1.2 million deaths in 2015. There is substantial heterogeneity in the levels and trends of HIV/AIDS across countries. While success stories can be found in many countries with improved mortality due to HIV/AIDS and declines in annual new infections, slowdowns or increases in rate of change in annual new infections has been observed elsewhere. Manuscript Interpretation The global scale-up of ART and PMTCT has been one of the great successes of global health in the last two decades. In the last decade, progress reducing new infections has been very slow, development assistance for health devoted to HIV has stagnated, and low-income country resources for health have grown slowly. New ambitious goals for HIV enshrined in Sustainable Development Goal 3 and the 90-90- 90 UNAIDS targets will be hard to achieve
At the end of 2014 personnel changes took place in the state archive of the Perm region. The new management of the institution offered a fresh look at the nature of the archive and declared a course for maximum popularization of the archival heritage. The article analyzes the experience of the archive in cooperation with the media, which has become one of the directions of the new policy of organization.
The conference materials are devoted to research of systematic fundamentals of the contemporary journalism,
Abstract: Background The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal 6 (MDG 6). The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation 1990 to 2013, and an opportunity to assess if there has been accelerated progress since the Millennium Declaration. Methods To estimate incidence and mortality for HIV, we used the UNAIDS Spectrum model appropriately modified based on a systematic review of the literature on mortality with and without out antiretroviral therapy (ART). For concentrated epidemics, we calibrated Spectrum models to fit vital registration data corrected for misclassification of HIV deaths. In generalized epidemics, we minimized a loss function to select epidemic curves most consistent with prevalence data and demographic data on all-cause mortality. We analyzed counterfactual scenarios for HIV to assess years of life saved through prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) and anti-retroviral therapy (ART). For tuberculosis, we analyzed vital registration and verbal autopsy data to estimate mortality using cause of death ensemble modeling. We analyzed data on corrected case-notifications, expert opinions on the case-detection rate, prevalence surveys and estimated cause-specific mortality using Bayesian metaregression to generate consistent trends in all parameters. Malaria mortality and incidence were analyzed using an updated cause of death database, a systematic analysis of verbal autopsy validation studies for malaria and recent literature on incidence, drug resistance and coverage of insecticide treated bed nets. Findings Globally in 2013, there were 1.8 million new HIV infections (95% uncertainty interval 1.7 million to 2.1 million), 29.0 million prevalent HIV cases (27.9 to 31.4) and 1.3 million HIV deaths (1.2 to 1.5). At the peak of the epidemic in 2005, HIV caused 1.7 million deaths (1.6 to 1.9). Concentrated epidemics in Latin America and Eastern Europe are substantially smaller than previously estimated. Through interventions including PMTCT and ART, 19.3 million life years have been saved, 68.9% in the developing world. From 2000 to 2011, the ratio of development assistance for health for HIV to years of life saved through intervention was $4,647-$7,137 in the developing world. All-forms tuberculosis (including Individuals who are HIV-positive) incidence, prevalence and death numbers in 2013 were 6.6 million (6.4 to 6.7), 10.1 million (9.8 to 10.4) and 1.4 million (1.3 to 1.5), the same figures in Individuals who are HIV-negative were 6.1 million (6.0 to 6.3), 9.5 million (9.2 to 9.8) and 1.3 million
The sociological culture of specialists in the field of media is a fundamental part of professional culture, as it implies the ability to competently operate with sociological information – to interpret sociological data for various media channels in the correct forms, accessible to the target audience. However, due to the low sociological competence of modern journalists, there is a discrediting of the consistency of using sociological methods in the field of the media. The author’s concept is proposed for increasing the sociological culture of specialists in the field of media.
The collection contains articles that were published as a result of the work of the 7th International Scientific Interdisciplinary Conference on Research and Methodology Institute of Foreign Languages (RUDN University). The main goal of the conference - to reveal the diversity of functional aspects of intercultural communication within the process of world education integration, to focus on translation and interpreting issues in the conditions of the modern society.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This book contains the proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computer Supported Education (CSEDU 2012) which was organized and sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC) and technically co-sponsored by SPEE (Portuguese Society for Engineering Education), IGIP (International Society for Engineering Education), ROLE (Responsive Open Learning Environments) and IFIP TC3 (International Federation for Information Processing - Technical Committee 3 - ICT and Education).
CSEDU has become an annual meeting place for presenting and discussing learning paradigms, best practices and case studies that concern innovative computer-supported learning strategies, institutional policies on technology-enhanced learning including learning from distance, supported by technology. The Web is currently a preferred medium for distance learning and the learning practice in this context is usually referred to as e-learning or technology-enhanced learning. CSEDU 2012 is expected to give an overview of the state of the art in technology-enhanced learning and to also outline upcoming trends and promote discussions about the education potential of new learning technologies in the academic and corporate world.
This conference brings together researchers and practitioners interested in methodologies and applications related to the education field. It has five main topic areas, covering different aspects of Computer Supported Education, including "Information Technologies Supporting Learning", "Learning/Teaching Methodologies and Assessment", "Social Context and Learning Environments", "Domain Applications and Case Studies" and "Ubiquitous Learning". We believe the proceedings, demonstrate new and innovative solutions, and highlight technical problems in each field that are challenging and worthwhile.
CSEDU 2012 received 243 paper submissions from 58 countries in all continents. A double-blind review process was enforced, with the help of the 297 experts who are members of the conference program committee, all of them internationally recognized in one of the main conference topic areas. Only 29 papers were selected to be published and presented as full papers, i.e. completed work (10 pages in proceedings / 30' oral presentations). 73 papers, describing work-in-progress, were selected as short papers for 20' oral presentation. Furthermore 37 papers were presented as posters. The full-paper acceptance ratio was thus 12%, and the total oral paper acceptance ratio was less than 42%. These ratios denote a high level of quality, which we intend to maintain and reinforce in the next edition of this conference.
The high quality of the CSEDU 2012 programme is enhanced by three keynote lectures, delivered by distinguished guests who are renowned experts in their fields, including (alphabetically): Joseph Trimmer (Ball State University, United States), David Kaufman (Simon Fraser University, Canada) and Hugh Davis (University of Southampton, United Kingdom).
For the fourth edition of the conference we extended and ensured appropriate indexing of the proceedings of CSEDU including DBLP, INSPEC, EI and Thomson Reuters Conference Proceedings Citation Index. Besides the proceedings edited by SciTePress, a short list of papers presented at the conference will be selected for publication of extended and revised versions in the Journal of Education and Information Technologies. Furthermore, all presented papers will soon be available at the SciTePress digital library.
The conference is complemented with two special sessions, focusing on specialized aspects of computer supported education; namely, a Special Session on Enhancing Student Engagement in e-Learning (ESEeL 2012) and a Special Session on Serious Games on Computer Science Learning (SGoCSL 2012).
Building an interesting and successful program for the conference required the dedicated effort of many people. Firstly, we must thank the authors, whose research and development efforts are recorded here. Secondly, we thank the members of the program committee and additional reviewers for their diligence and expert reviewing. We also wish to include here a word of appreciation for the excellent organization provided by the conference secretariat, from INSTICC, who have smoothly and efficiently prepared the most appropriate environment for a productive meeting and scientific networking. Last but not least, we thank the invited speakers for their invaluable contribution and for taking the time to synthesize and deliver their talks.