Differential Poisson’s ratio of a crystalline two-dimensional membrane
We compute the differential Poisson’s ratio of a suspended two-dimensional crystalline membrane embedded into a space of large dimensionality . We demonstrate that, in the regime of anomalous Hooke’s law, the differential Poisson’s ratio approaches a universal value determined solely by the spatial dimensionality , with a power-law expansion , where . Thus, the value predicted in previous literature holds only in the limit .
The optical properties of graphene-based structures are discissed. The universal optical absorption in graphene is reviewed. The photonic band structure and transmission of graphene-based photonic crystals are considered. The spectra of plasmon and magnetoplasmon excitations in graphene layers and grapehene nanoribbons (GNR) are analyzed. The localization of the electromagnetic waves in the photonic crystals with defects, which play a role of waveguide, is studied. Properties of plasmons and magnetoplasmons in graphene layers and GNR are reviewed. The surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation with the net amplification of surface plasmons in the doped GNR is described. The minimal population inversion per unit area needed for the net amplification of plasmons in a doped GNR is reported. The various applications of graphene for photonics and optoelectronics are reviewed. The tunability of photonic and plasmonic properties of various graphene structures by doping achieved by applying the gate voltage is discussed.
Graphene synthesis technology on substrates is promising, as is compatible with existing CMOS-technology. Knowledge about how to affect the substrate of choice for structural and electronic properties of graphene is important and opens up new opportunities in targeted influence on the properties of this unique material. Specialized measuring system was established to measure the galvanomagnetic characteristics of substrates multigraphene. Its structure and the measurement results are presented in the paper. For surface resistivity measurements we obtained samples were higher than that of natural graphite, but much lower than for samples of colloidal suspensions.
The surface-active substances everywhere are presented on the water surface, they are exposed to waves and currents, and are involved in the processes of ocean-atmosphere exchange. They play a prominent role in the formation of small-scale part of the spectrum of wind waves and affect the manifestations of internal waves on the sea surface. In this paper, on the basis of experimental data, measurements of the surface-active agents "in situ", calculated the probability distributions of elastic films of surface-active substances in the slicks (smoothed areas of the sea surface) for the two oceanic regions (the Pacific Ocean near the island of San Diego (California ) and the central part of the Atlantic Ocean between the equator and the 35th parallel of northern latitude and 1° - 65° W). Obtained almost the same distribution function of elasticity of the films of surface-active substances (in normalized variables), which indicates the existence of a universal "climatic" of the distribution function of elasticity of the films of surfactants. The results can be used to assess the visibility of slicks on the sea surface by remote radio-physical methods.
A novel type of spaser with the net amplification of surface plasmons (SPs) in a doped graphene nanoribbon is proposed. The plasmons in the THz region can be generated in a doped graphene nanoribbon due to nonradiative excitation by emitters like two level quantum dots located along a graphene nanoribbon. The minimal population inversion per unit area, needed for the net amplification of SPs in a doped graphene nanoribbon, is obtained. The dependence of the minimal population inversion on the surface plasmon wave vector, graphene nanoribbon width, doping, and damping parameters necessary for the amplification of surface plasmons in the armchair graphene nanoribbon is studied.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.