Финансово-правовые аспекты автономии школы: влияет ли учредитель на содержание образования?
Financial law aspects of school autonomy in Russian are analyzed in this article. The main research question: does the founder have the opportunity to influence on school curriculum. At present, such influence is possible within the framework of the participation of representatives of founders in the work of the governing councils of schools in accordance with the legislation on education. However, as the analysis of a number of normative legal acts of the subjects of the Russian Federation and local self-government bodies showed, the influence of the founder is possible during the approval of the state (municipal) assignment. The educational program contains a set of indicators that have a value expression, and in fact is an expanded version of the state (municipal) assignment. In turn, the state (municipal) assignment, and accordingly, budget resources are formed by the subject of the Russian Federation and the municipal bodies on the basis of departmental lists of services. This situation creates a basis for violating the autonomy of schools in Russia in the issue of determining school curricular and is embedded in the internal contradiction between the law on education and budget legislation.
The subject matter of the article lies between public law and economics. The article contains sources of legal regulation in state corporations, ways of their forming, jurisdiction, priorities and results of its activities achieved in western democracies. The author stresses the dependence of effectiveness of this public law institute on checks and balances as well as individual responsibility, responsibility for doings and refraining from doing by authorities, reputation of officials.
This article describes the results of sociological research on estimation of condition and development prospects of federalism in Russia, which was conducted by ZIRCON Research Group in January - May 2011. The opinion of population and elite groups of four regions about the foundations of Russian federalism development, administrative-territorial system of the Russian Federation and its principles, relations between subjects-regions and federative centre is presented. The results of the research indicate that at the moment a request for political and administrative autonomy of the subjects of the Federation is not obviously formulated by either citizens or regional elite groups. Regional identity is not a common phenomenon. The authors mark out necessary factors of federalism development: expansion of economic self-dependence of regions, existence of ethno-national or regional identity of citizens, democratization and decentralization.
During the implementation of the higher education reform, aimed at applying the competence-based approach to teaching, the content and form of teaching is changing. University graduates should possess a number of skills including a good command of a foreign language. When teaching a foreign language, an important role is given to spoken and professional discourse. The task of the teacher is to select effective educational practices aimed at increasing students’ motivation to cognitive process, acquiring new knowledge, developing new skills, as well as to choose methods, activities and
The article discusses how to overcome cross-cultural barriers among students. Special attention is paid to the nature of international communication, the types and the content of intercultural barriers. The authors suggest guidelines for students, teachers and educational institutions that would help to overcome emerging cross-cultural barriers.
The article examines the reasons for low motivation for autonomous learning and focuses on the review of the research carried out to identify students’ interpretation of the following key notions: “motivation strategies” and “autonomous learning” in relation to learning foreign languages. The article considers the interrelation between motivation and autonomous learning, presents key motivation strategies and teaching techniques that students see as the best for their academic achievement.
Psychotherapeutic practice calls for creating conceptions of autonomy, which can be utilized in work with clients. This article focuses on the psychotherapeutic approach called 'existential analysis and logotherapy' and makes explicit its ideas regarding autonomy. Specifically, the three key theoretical underpinnings of understanding and development of one's autonomy are described. It was shown that the existential-analytical practice is guided by the notions of 'person', dialogue/relatedness and phenomenology. The structural model of autonomy on the basis of existential analysis is discussed. It is argued that, although traditionally autonomy is strongly associated with the third fundamental motivation – the motivation to 'be oneself', this position is insufficient for practice. Thus, the central argument of the paper is that, from structural perspective, the useful way to address the issue of autonomy is to consider it as the interplay of the four fundamental existential motivations, described by A. Längle. Therefore, the process of maintaining of autonomy includes four different kinds of affirmation. The person says ‘yes’ to his or her subjective reality, own feelings, uniqueness and distinctiveness, and agentive presence in others and in the world. The paper also provides illustrations from psychotherapeutic practice to justify this standpoint.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/