Андатив и вентив в языках Сибири: к типологии глагольной ориентации
The article analyzes the principles of naming of certain types of familial relations using the concept ‘husband’ (a married man) as example, as well as means of application of semantic characteristics relevant to their naming to linguistic maps. Differences in terms are caused by types of familial relation systems - descriptive or classificatory. We discovered the following basic strategies for the naming of the concept ‘husband’: 1) transfer of meaning: physical realm (gender) → social realm (acquired kinship): ‘man → husband’; 2) transfer of meaning: physical realm (gender and age) → social realm (acquired kinship): ‘old man → husband’; 3) transfer of meaning: social realm (friendly communication) → social realm (acquired kinship): ‘friend → husband’. In the Khanty language, the basic strategy of transfer is the ‘man → husband’ model; however, the ‘friend → husband’ transfer is also possible. In Nenets, the basic strategy is ‘old man → husband’, while the ‘man → husband’ and (less frequently) ‘friend → husband’ strategies are peripheral. In Selkup, all listed strategies can be observed, however, the last one is peripheral: ‘man → husband’, ‘old man → husband’, ‘friend → husband’ (the latter is only observed in Purovskaya Tolka and Bystrinka). In Komi-Zyrian, several strategies are used varying between areals: ‘man → husband’ (everywhere), ‘old man → husband’ (Kharsaim, Samburg), ‘friend → husband’ (Muzhi, Vosyakhovo, Beloyarsk, Kharsaim, Samburg). The basic strategy of the Samoyed languages is the usage of lexemes denoting middle-aged or elderly male persons with regards to their age to denote acquired kinship. A typical Nenets meaning transfer is ‘old man → husband’, in Selkup it is ‘man → husband’ and ‘old man → husband’, although other types of figurative meaning development according to the model ‘friend → husband’ are also possible. The Komi-Zyrian language is unique, which is explained by its relatively recent emergence at this territory and movement through territories populated by other peoples. Innovations in various regions of its distribution are caused by contacts with various languages with varying principles of kinship terminology organization. In places where it comes in contact with Khanty, figurative meanings develop according to the classificatory type of kinship terminology (usage of the word мужык as ‘husband’ becomes possible), whereas in the zone of interaction with the Nenets language, the Samoyed ‘old man’ model is activated. In other contact zones, mostly peripheral ones (Khanty and Nenets, Khanty and Selkup), similar processes take place.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.