In this paper I describe the grammatical markers and relevant lexical elements used in different types of interrogative sentences in Bashkir, and their distribution. I discuss polar and alternative questions in Bashkir, which both involve a special interrogative particle =mE, and their intonation patterns, and review the non-interrogative uses of the particle =mE. I discuss content questions (“wh questions”), including the inventory of interrogative words, their position, and the intonation patterns used in such questions. I review the attested peripheral markers used in interrogative sentences, i. e. tag-like and particle-like markers, which are mostly used in biased questions. Finally, I discuss the expression of some special types of questions, including non-standard illocutionary types (“deliberative”, permissive, and hortative), echo questions, and embedded questions.
The paper deals with DOM rules in Moksha Mordvin.
This paper examines the interaction and the hierarchy of grammatical categories in Gban (< South Mande, Côte d’Ivoire), as well as from the theoretical perspective. The first part describes the discovered cases of interaction of grammatical categories in Gban (among themselves and also with some peripheral elements). The second part of the paper focuses on the question of how we can hierarchically generalize the interaction of grammatical categories. An elaboration of some theoretical points is made, including a proposed division between symmetrical and asymmetrical interaction (together with a characterization of which cases belong to which class. A method is proposed to build language-specific hierarchies of grammatical categories. By applying this method to the data of Gban, a possible hierarchy of this language’s grammatical categories is established.
The paper discusses the competition between word order strategies in Russian, where an adverb modifying an adjective within a prepositional phrase may be itself either within the PP or to the left of it. Several factors are shown to condition the choice of word order, including the properties of the NP complement of the preposition, the choice of the adverb and, importantly, the length of the preposition. An analysis of leftward displaced modification in terms of the PF lowering of the preposition is sketched.
This talk provides an analysis for the functioning of the temporal distance in past category which has emerged in Gban (South Mande). The category consists of three subcategories: hodiernal (“today’s past”; default interpretation ‘(earlier) today’), hesternal (“yesterday’s past”; default interpretation ‘yesterday’) and remote (default interpretation ‘the day before yesterday or earlier’). When influenced by a temporal location adverbial modifier, the interpretation of sentences with temporal distance forms changes in a nontrivial way.
Tabasaran (Nakh-Daghestanian) features three main constructions to described possession: the dative, locative, and genitive constructions. The dative and locative constructions represent constructions with an external possessor. The possessor in the genitive construction behaves as an attributive modifier in most cases. However, when expressing inaliable possession, the genitive forms a separate NP and does not constitute a single NP with the possessee, thus showing the syntactic behavior characteristic of external possessors. In addition, Tabasaran has a system of verbal person markers also used to denote possession. The paper describes semantic and syntactic parameters that determine the interpretation of verbal possessive markers.
The present paper deals with two cases of predicate reduplication in the Besleney dialect of the Kabardian language (idiom spoken in Ulap village, Adyghe Republic). The reduplicated constructions mark the duration or the regularity of a situation and seem to form an antonymic pair. In addition, one of the constructions shows futher semantic development and can also mark the highest degree of the main feature of an object.
The paper presents a corpus-driven study of the Russian PP-based degree modifier do uzhasa (lit. ‘to horror’), suggesting a two-stage grammaticalization path. The first stage (presumably, XVIII–XIX c.) involves subjectification, while during the second stage, subjective readings give rise to intensifier readings through conceptual metonymy. Both stages see a host class expansion. This process is motivated by a complex interplay of factors, with analogy playing a major role. Finally, the evolution of do uzhasa is contrasted to that of the English PP-based intensifier to death. While there are obvious similarities, a closer look identifies a number of important differences that are relevant for the development of construction-based typology of language change.