In this paper I describe the grammatical markers and relevant lexical elements used in different types of interrogative sentences in Bashkir, and their distribution. I discuss polar and alternative questions in Bashkir, which both involve a special interrogative particle =mE, and their intonation patterns, and review the non-interrogative uses of the particle =mE. I discuss content questions (“wh questions”), including the inventory of interrogative words, their position, and the intonation patterns used in such questions. I review the attested peripheral markers used in interrogative sentences, i. e. tag-like and particle-like markers, which are mostly used in biased questions. Finally, I discuss the expression of some special types of questions, including non-standard illocutionary types (“deliberative”, permissive, and hortative), echo questions, and embedded questions.
The paper deals with DOM rules in Moksha Mordvin.
The paper discusses verbal markers meaning ‘go in order to P’ and ‘come in order to P’ in languages of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Special attention is paid to Forest Nenets and some Tungusic languages. Andative vs. ventive opposition (expressing, respectively, motion from and to the deictic center) is identified in Forest Nenets for the first time. In Forest Nenets, these markers are non-implicative, i. e., in order to use them, the goal situation P does not need to have taken place in the actual world (even where they mark finite verbs in indicative sentences with past reference), only the motion situation. Though most Tungusic languages also have more than one directional-purposive marker, these usually show a different type of an opposition, namely that between ‘go in order to P’ and ‘go in order to P and come back’. The former markers are not deictically oriented, while the latter differ from typical andative markers in that their meaning has a reditive component (‘returning to the initial point’).
As a typological background, the paper also briefly considers data of some languages spoken in other areals. Morphemes with similar, but often not entirely identical meanings, attested cross-linguistically, are usually described as markers of associated motion or motion-cum-purpose categories. The latter term suits the discussed Siberian-language markers best, because, in contrast to the former term, it highlights both the syntactic role of the motion situation participant (where s/he is coreferent with the S/A-participant of the goal situation) and the temporal sequence of the situations.
The article also proposes some observations on the possible grammaticalization paths of motion-cum-purpose markers and provides a tentative list of typological parameters which can be relevant for this domain.
This paper examines the interaction and the hierarchy of grammatical categories in Gban (< South Mande, Côte d’Ivoire), as well as from the theoretical perspective. The first part describes the discovered cases of interaction of grammatical categories in Gban (among themselves and also with some peripheral elements). The second part of the paper focuses on the question of how we can hierarchically generalize the interaction of grammatical categories. An elaboration of some theoretical points is made, including a proposed division between symmetrical and asymmetrical interaction (together with a characterization of which cases belong to which class. A method is proposed to build language-specific hierarchies of grammatical categories. By applying this method to the data of Gban, a possible hierarchy of this language’s grammatical categories is established.
The paper discusses the competition between word order strategies in Russian, where an adverb modifying an adjective within a prepositional phrase may be itself either within the PP or to the left of it. Several factors are shown to condition the choice of word order, including the properties of the NP complement of the preposition, the choice of the adverb and, importantly, the length of the preposition. An analysis of leftward displaced modification in terms of the PF lowering of the preposition is sketched.
This talk provides an analysis for the functioning of the temporal distance in past category which has emerged in Gban (South Mande). The category consists of three subcategories: hodiernal (“today’s past”; default interpretation ‘(earlier) today’), hesternal (“yesterday’s past”; default interpretation ‘yesterday’) and remote (default interpretation ‘the day before yesterday or earlier’). When influenced by a temporal location adverbial modifier, the interpretation of sentences with temporal distance forms changes in a nontrivial way.
Tabasaran (Nakh-Daghestanian) features three main constructions to described possession: the dative, locative, and genitive constructions. The dative and locative constructions represent constructions with an external possessor. The possessor in the genitive construction behaves as an attributive modifier in most cases. However, when expressing inaliable possession, the genitive forms a separate NP and does not constitute a single NP with the possessee, thus showing the syntactic behavior characteristic of external possessors. In addition, Tabasaran has a system of verbal person markers also used to denote possession. The paper describes semantic and syntactic parameters that determine the interpretation of verbal possessive markers.
The paper presents the results of the studies carried over the group of English verbs with the meaning of falling. The research goals included classification of the lexical meanings, both direct and metaphorical, rendered by those verbs, on the basis of the analysis of the components of the situations put together in the special questionnaire. This was carried out together with native speakers of English, after which the collected set of examples was verified and expanded with searches in the big corpora of English speakers’ oral and written production available at the SketchEngine platform, which also provided the data and the statistics for the analysis of collocational behaviour of the verbs in question used with different subjects of falling. The scope of application of the umbrella verb fall and the distribution between it and its two rivals — drop and fall down — was in focus of the three corresponding sections in the paper, while the range of peripheral verbs of falling with all the comparative analysis of their lexical features formed one more section. Separately from the verbs conveying the direct meanings of falling, metaphoric shifts in the meanings of these verbs made up the content of section 6. Based on the findings presented in the previous sections, the conclusions regarding the concept of falling in English are discussed in the last part of the paper. The research confirmed that the verb fall is by far the most widely used in various contexts of falling. Whether used alone or combined with adverbial or prepositional particles, it covers the overwhelming majority of meanings of falling, both literal and metaphorical. Although drop proved to be the most frequent synonym of fall, there is a distribution of meanings between the two related to the nature of the subject and the intentionality of the action. As shown in the paper, the choice between fall and fall down appears to be determined by the trajectory of the fall and whether the typical position of the subject is vertical or not. Likewise, the distribution between fall off and fall down is conditioned by the trajectory, with the surface mentioned with the latter. Among the various peripheral verbs of falling, come and go — the most general verbs of movement — are also used in combination with down in specific cases of falling.
The article provides a classification of approximately 30 verbs used to describe situations associated with the falling of animate and inanimate objects. The authors conclude that in the modern Persian language, the choice of the exact verb to denote falling depends on the degree of integrity of the falling object in question. Only situations in which verbs are used in their direct meaning are considered; where necessary, stylistic differences in the use of verbs are discussed separately. Examples are taken from both literary and colloquial Persian (all examples have been assembled from Internet resources). The authors conclude that in modern Persian language, when choosing a verb to describe a fall, the integrity of the falling object matters. Analysis of the cited material shows that the most frequent verb is oftādan. It is used regardless of which surface and along which path the object falls (solid or liquid), as well as the fact that the object remains on the surface or falls under a layer, into a liquid or granular substance, or into a vessel. However, the scope of the verb oftādan is limited. It does not serve situations of falling populations associated with the disintegration of an integral object into parts, and only in very rare cases is it used to describe the fall of liquid masses, loose bodies and precipitation. In situations describing the fall of parts of an object or the destruction of a structure, the verbs rixtan, rizeš kardan, foru rixtan are used. Also, to describe various situations related to the semantics of the fall, in modern Persian there are a number of verbs with a limited scope. All examples are taken from Internet resources and provided with links.
The present paper deals with two cases of predicate reduplication in the Besleney dialect of the Kabardian language (idiom spoken in Ulap village, Adyghe Republic). The reduplicated constructions mark the duration or the regularity of a situation and seem to form an antonymic pair. In addition, one of the constructions shows futher semantic development and can also mark the highest degree of the main feature of an object.