Technology transfer into Russia’s agricultural sector — Can public funding replace ailing business engagement?
The Russian government plans to lift the country’s agriculture and food productions and aims to become the biggest global supplier of healthy, high-quality, and ecologically ‘clean’ foods. Although innovative activities in the field have been rising over the last decade, the intensity still remains far below both other Russian economic activities as well as other competitor nations. Policymakers focus on Russia’s Research and Technology Organizations (RTOs) as a channel to transfer new technologies to agricultural and food producers. As demand for new technologies is low, public funds are invested into RTOs to increase the quality of their basic research activities. Instead of converting these additional funds into better technology transfer, agricultural RTOs specialize in government-funded basic research and reduce further their role as applied research organizations. Thereby, RTOs do not seek to increase their competitive position but instead maximize their benefits from public support. This article questions the leverage effect that public support measures have for technology transfer activities in the present case, and suggests that a more holistic approach including both supply and demand is needed.
This article is about Eliza Lucas Pinckney (1722–1793), probably the first important agriculturalist of the United States. She developed indigo as one of most important cash crops in colonial South Carolina. Eliza also experimented with large fig orchard, with flax, hemp and silk. The progressive education she gave her sons enabled them to play major roles in the American Revolution and in the government of the newly-formed United States of America. Later in life, British raids destroyed her property during the American War of Independence leaving her ruined financially.
This article discusses the objectives and challenges for corporate governance of SOEs in Russia, and provides an international perspective of the performance of SOEs as compared to privately owned companies. Recent trends in the policy and management of state property are described. The problems of corporate governance in Russia are described in an agency perspective, and survey evidence on corporate governance and transparency of Russian SOEs is provided. Particular attention is given to the legal construction of the state corporation. The final section on the performance effects of state ownership summarizes the key contributions in the international economic literature in this field.
This volume explores problems in the history of science at the intersection of life sciences and agriculture, from the mid-eighteenth to the mid-twentieth century. Taking a comparative national perspective, the book examines agricultural practices in a broad sense, including the practices and disciplines devoted to land management, forestry, soil science, and the improvement and management of crops and livestock. The life sciences considered include genetics, microbiology, ecology, entomology, forestry, and deal with US, European, Russian, Japanese, Indonesian, Chinese contexts. The book shows that the investigation of the border zone of life sciences and agriculture raises many interesting questions about how science develops. In particular it challenges one to reexamine and take seriously the intimate connection between scientific development and the practical goals of managing and improving - perhaps even recreating - the living world to serve human ends. Without close attention to this zone it is not possible to understand the emergence of new disciplines and transformation of the old disciplines, to evalucate the role and impact of such major figures of science as Humboldt and Mendel, or to appreciate how much of the history of modern biology has been driven by national ambitions and imperialist expansion in competition with rival nations.
The role of universities has undergone dramatic changes. Universities no longer only host knowledge, but are now required to develop it further and to contribute to economic growth and support for e.g. companies to strengthen their competitiveness. This is of particular importance for the Russian Federation, where the last 20 years saw the dismantlement of the innovation system of the Soviet Union and ever since has been struggling to close the gap to the innovation-driven economies of Western Europe. When the Russian Federation shifted towards a market economy in the 1990s, economists, sociologists, political scientists and/or management staff educated in modern principles of management were in short supply. To alleviate the situation, the State University - the Higher School of Economics - was founded November 27, 1992 by the Russian Federation Government Decree No 736 to educate future leading professionals in the field of economics and social sciences. Currently HSE is the largest research-led institutions in the field of social and economic sciences in Eastern Europe. Spread over Four Russian cities - Moscow, St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Perm. Of particular interest is the Innovation Infrastructure Development Program which puts great emphasize on commercialization of research results and entrepreneurial thinking.
This is a review of issues and problems, including cross-border disputes, arising during customs examination and sampling in the Russian Federation and the European Union. The Customs Union of the Russian Federation, Republic of Kazakhstan, and the Republic of Belarus was formed in accordance with the Agreement of 6 October 2007. This article provides some concrete examples of cross-border disputes in comparison to similar problems that have arisen in the EU, particularly in the Netherlands. Based on this review, we will conclude with some suggestions to improve the handling of cross-border disputes arising from customs examinations and sampling.
The paper analyzes how the agricultural sector applies outsourcing in its practice. What differs the outsourcing from other forms of cooperation of enterprises is identified. We show that an agro-enterprise could function as an outsourcee. Some ways of how outsourcing can be used in the agricultural production to make its profitability higher are proposed here.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.