Gender Equality in Preschool STEM Programs as a Factor Determining Russia’s Successful Technological Development
The article discusses the importance of introducing training programs for preschool children that allow them to master basic knowledge in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM subjects) as an academic basis for the technological transition that is currently taking place in the modern world. It is shown that when preschool students study STEM subjects, it gives them a great advantage later in elementary, middle, and high school. As a result of our investigation of STEM subjects for preschoolers and the gender considerations that should be incorporated into successful teaching strategies, we have concluded that together with the preparation and institutionalization of such training programs it is necessary to teach the designers of educational programs as well as educators about the specific features that characterize how boys and girls learn. A curriculum that takes gender differences into account is one that does not allow the development of a gender dichotomy in education. Rather, it should ensure that both boys and girls have equal motivation and a positive attitude about STEM subjects.
It also summarizes the results of many years of work included expert interviews, surveys, visits to organizations, competitions and conferences, the study of the regulatory framework, policy documents and educational programs. The collected materials cover all levels of education and a wide range of issues: the sector’s structure, state policy, contests and competitions, methodological and staffing, accessibility for different categories of children, etc. There is an evidence-based country assessment of the sector’s development, landscape and state policy changes, it has been also identified the development drivers and barriers and highlighted the features of the situation in different directions. The current study shows that robotics has become not only the subject of direct learning, but it is also a medium of instruction in teaching other disciplines and the tool for the high-order skills development, it strongly provides the children and adolescents’ motivation and career guidance including disables. At the same time, the sustainable models of content and staffing, coordination mechanisms have not been formed yet despite of the robotics leading positions as a sector of education development, its attracting public interest and involving various stakeholders. The book is published in two parts. The first one includes the conceptual framework, the sector’s history, its staffing and methodological support, competitions in robotics. The second part discusses the levels and directions of educational robotics. The publication is addressed to professional community of the educational robotics sector, managers and teachers of all education levels.
People with technological educational background are often skeptical about the humanities. This is first of all caused by labor market inequalities: people employed in the IT industry, which requires an analytical mind and appropriate skills, are usually better paid than their peers representing the humanities. Secondly, people with a logical mind, especially students of leading technological universities, are used to finding logic everywhere, while the humanities are rare based on strict logic. In this paper we will explain why humanities are important for engineering specialists on the whole and for IT people in particular and how to make tech students interested in such subjects.
The article deals with the problem of role parent-child relations, namely, the social roles in the family that the child "plays" in the family in relation to mother or father. The content of different family roles depends on the place of the child within the family community and its role in that community. The author examines the role of the child in the family as a condition of his full personal development. The aim of this published study is to correlate children’s roles in the family with the level of self-esteem and anxiety levels of the older preschoolers, as well as the peculiarities of their relationship to the members of their family. As a diagnostic tool, in addition to the known techniques, was used the author's method of "Social role of the family" (version of "Roles of the child") by Vasileva E.N., Orlov A.V. The analysis of the data revealed the children’s roles, under which among the older preschoolers was reduced the level of anxiety, increased self-esteem and family situation was perceived as a positive and favorable. This article may be used in diagnostic and advisory work of the practical psychologist in education.
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Across the world STEM (learning and work in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) has taken central importance in education and the economy in a way that few other disciplines have. STEM competence has become seen as key to higher productivity, technological adaptation and research-based innovation. No area of educational provision has a greater current importance than the STEM disciplines yet there is a surprising dearth of comprehensive and world-wide information about STEM policy, participation, programs and practice.
The Age of STEM is a state of the art survey of the global trends and major country initiatives in STEM. It gives an international overview of issues such as:
STEM strategy and coordination curricula, teaching and assessment women in STEM indigenous students research training STEM in the graduate labour markets STEM breadth and STEM depth
The individual chapters give comparative international analysis as well as a global overview, particularly focusing on the growing number of policies and practices in mobilising and developing talent in the STEM fields. The book will be of particular interest to anyone involved in educational policy, those in education management and leaders in both schooling and tertiary education. It will have a wider resonance among practitioners in the STEM disciplines, particularly at university level, and for those interested in contemporary public policy.
The research is aimed to elaboration of the tools to measure the parental evaluation of the municipal preschool service, as a part of complex evaluation of preschool sector of education. The research needs are related to increasing number of types of preschool service providers, appearing nongovernmental providers, competition growing, including municipal sector. On the qualitative part, the individual interviews with parents (N=30) are conducting, the gathered data will be analyzed: coded, classified, and conceptualized to identify scope of parent’s evaluation criteria and parent’s meanings of that criteria.
Since pre-school age, children rely on contextual information while generalizing information about new objects. It is still uncertain what underlies this inductive selectivity; whether it is associative learning, which depends on the numbers of features that an object has, or conceptual learning, which depends on the features’ content. In the first experiment, we varied the contextual information and found that 4-5-year-olds rely more on contextual features of the object (shape and colour of the background), but not on spatial ones (location). In the second experiment we varied the combination of context features and showed that, given a lack of information about an object (shape only), children rely on contextual spatial features more than on the object’s features. Moreover, they prefer not to rely on contextual information at all if the object’s information was modified (same shape but different colour). Together, these results indicate the dependence of inductive selectivity on conceptual learning, not only associative learning.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.