The article presents the results of an analytical study of the development patterns of universities that participate in Russian Excellence initiative (the 5–100 Project). The analysis includes their financing structure, their priority development areas, and the trends of the key indicators. The data comes from by the Monitoring of Higher Education Institutions’ Performance of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the indicators from the road maps of the participating universities. The cluster analysis of 15 universities was conducted at two main turning points during the project: the launch of the project (2013) and the launch of the second wave of excellence initiative (2015). The identified development patterns were compared with trends universities’ achievements in the rankings. The results of this study can be used in future studies of the performance of universities participating in the 5–100 Project and similar excellence initiatives in higher education.
This article is based on a case study conducted within the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE) that examined the identity fragmentation of academic professionals in the context of current educational and academic reforms in Russia. Seven hundred and five professors were surveyed for the study, which focused on budgeting work time. The authors single out and describe eight groups of teachers using various structures for budgeting their working time: (1) teachers; (2) teachers engaged in research; (3) teachers engaged in administrative work; (4) researchers; (5) administrators; (6) teachers/researchers/administrators; (7) teachers/researchers; and (8) teachers/administrators. These groups were classified by comparing professional goals, evaluations of working conditions, the university's strategic goals, and attitudes toward publication policy.
The emergence of many new types of school in post-Soviet Russia raises issues of inequalities in access to quality education. The performance of schools is very uneven, many are failing to provide adequate education, and those that admit their students from the poorer parts of the population need special help and extra resources if they are to improve.
In an analysis of research data on three generations of Russians, it was found that the impetus prompted by the social and economic transformation in the early 1990s that opened up opportunities for social and professional growth had been practically exhausted by late 2006, and the tendency toward downward social mobility has become more pronounced. This provides evidence that the social structure of today's Russia is "stagnant" and there are no positive shifts in its dynamics.
Higher education around the world is undergoing serious transformations as a result of technological, social, and economic processes. Universities from various countries are trying to secure a competitive position for themselves on the international market for educational services. Currently thousands of universities from different countries are trying to enter the race to join the race for international rankings. In their quest to reach the top of the rankings some countries seek to follow the experience of other, more successful nations by adopting their “best” practices. It is not surprising that all countries wish to secure a prosperous future for themselves and take efforts to avoid remaining on the sidelines of world development. However, a factor such as culture or national mentality may undermine the strategies and transformation processes that are being developed.
The goal of this study is to conduct a cross-cultural analysis of the academic engagement of students from Russian, Chinese, Japanese, American, and British universities and determine the role that cultural differences play in existing educational systems. The study sample consisted of 26,648 Bachelor’s students who were enrolled at universities in the United States, United Kingdom, China, Japan, and Russia during the 2016–2017 academic year. We used data from the “Student Experience in the Research University” (SERU) international research project to construct an index of student class involvement on the basis of a factor analysis. The results of our univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that students from Japanese, Chinese, American, British, and Russian universities demonstrate qualitatively different levels of academic involvement, which depends on the organization of the educational process as well as the cultural traditions of these countries. Thus, the Chinese students turned out to be the least engaged, since they were not required to actively participate in class discussions or to discuss additional questions related to the course with the instructor. Russian and American students demonstrated the highest level of engagement compared with other students from countries in the survey.
The author emphasizes the need to take into account existing cultural aspects when developing educational strategies, interacting with foreign students in the classroom, as well as conducting comparative studies.
The structure of Russians' life course has never been studied in depth; the only exception is demographic studies regarding marital status and age at childbirth. Principles that define life trajectories should also be examined. The “adult” concept is one of a number of important concepts in the general structure of life planning. This article presents an agenda for future research based on several case studies obtained during a longitudinal study of educational and occupational trajectories. Studying the transition into adulthood is an important resource for understanding the modern times. However, another option is also possible. This concept of transition into adulthood can also be considered as a phenomenon of contemporary culture. The research perspective of cultural sociology, whose methodology is described as structural hermeneutics, can serve these purposes. Structural hermeneutics refers to an analysis of the structure of senses both intersubjective and collectively shared. It is important to analyze how the adult concept is used with regard to the structure of the life course in materials from Russian studies, with account for the ambivalence of this concept and research conducted in other countries.
Currently one of the main tools for the large scale studies of schools is statistical analysis. Although it is the most common method and it offers greatest opportunities for analysis, there are other quantitative methods for studying schools, such as network analysis. We discuss the potential advantages that network analysis has for educational research.
This article presents results of a survey of after-school centre directors concerning the extracurricular activities of children. It was conducted within the framework of the Monitoring of the Economics of Education at the National Research University—Higher School of Economics (HSE). The demographics of students at children's after-school centres, the focus of their programs, and the way these educational institutions are supplied with staff and financing were all analyzed on the basis of the obtained data.
This paper reviews some government policy measures aimed at strengthening competition in the Russian university market and looks at the best international practices in this area. It analyzes the competitive behavior of universities under the current government policy on higher education and research and development and suggests an approach to assessing the efficiency of government stimulation of competition among universities and to predicting the outcomes of applying existing stimulation tools. This paper presents the results of assessing the current level of competition in the Russian university market using a nonstructural method, an adjusted Panzar-Rosse competition assessment model. We used the value of grants received by universities as part of government orders as one of the model factors and also analyzed the effects of other factors describing the size, entrance requirements, and research activities of universities. This article investigates how university income depends on the value of grants received (a ratio of total income to the size of grants) and on the number of students and teachers. The level of competition in this market is characterized by the elasticity of the total income of an average university based on the value of grants received.
This article analyzes how Russia’s networks of higher education institutions contribute to their host regions in terms of the following three major facets: the economic development; the human capital development; and the innovative development. To ensure the analytical framework used derives relevant and representative findings given the nature of the Russian socio-economic environment, the authors implement a customized methodology that factors in the most appropriate components from various international best practices in assessing university effects on comprehensive societal development. The study will be of interest to a wide audience of stakeholders in higher education and broader contexts, including policy professionals at the federal and regional levels, institutional leadership, researchers and analysts, students in socio-political, economic, and educational majors, etc.
Research shows the importance of methodological issues in the study of young Russians during the current economic slump. A critical analysis of the indicators of the social and economic situation of young people in Russia shows the need to include the concept of lifestyle and its influence of the choices made by young people and their parents.
Researchers of the traditional higher education system identify a number of factors affecting admission to a university (barriers to entry) and factors of its successful completion (barriers to exit). Massive open online courses (MOOCs), available to any Internet user, remove barriers to entry because anyone can study there. But do all students have an equal chance of successful completion of the online course? Do the same barriers to exit exist for MOOCs? Binary logistic regression was used to determine the way that factors related to each student's individual features affect the successful completion of online courses. This study was based on administrative data from the Coursera platform across four courses offered by the NRU HSE from February to June 2014. The results of this analysis show that there is a strong correlation between successful completion of online courses and educational experience. The probability of successful completion is higher among men with higher education who have already taken online courses and studied similar disciplines.
The authors examine how the social status of the university professor has evolved in Russia in recent centuries in light of the historical concepts about the enslavement and emancipation of social groups proposed by Sergey Solovyov and Aleksandr Gradovsky. They use the metaphor of the “slave” [nevol’nik] to describe the dependent position of the professor in the university. The word encapsulates administrative tyranny, the spread of subordinate and submissive mentality in the university environment, and the curtailment of opportunities for professional selffulfillment. The authors present the university administration as the main agent responsible for enslaving professors. Administrators represent bureaucratic power and act to advance their own social ambitions.
Why do children learn in different ways: some are good students who show interest and zeal, while others are lazy and have to be taught against their will? Why do schools have over- and underachievers? Of course, there are a multitude of reasons. But almost 50 years ago it was shown using large data sets that families with high socioeconomic status are more likely to have children who are good students. Of course, there are many examples of successful students from poor families. However, they tend to be the exception to the rule. The certainty of success in school increases with rising socioeconomic status.
The purpose of this article is to analyze Soviet school codes as part of a continuous tradition in Russian education and as a way of arriving at a portrait of Soviet schoolchildren. The article is divided into two parts. The first part provides a brief historical overview of the codes of conduct in prerevolutionary and Soviet school policy and practice. The body of evidence that we consider includes resolutions of the Soviet government, Soviet regulations about schooling, as well as the corpus of codes of conduct for Soviet schools stretching from the 1930s to the 1980s. The history of codes of conduct in the Soviet school system can be told in several stages: an initial period of complete rejection of all codes of conduct (1917–27), a period of gradual legitimation through the issuance of government resolutions (1927–35), a transitional period of waiting for the adoption of regulations promised by government resolution (1935–43), a decade (1943–54) during which all requirements were based on the “Code for Students,” adopted in 1943, and finally a gradual transition period when disciplinary functions became subject to uniform requirements (1954–72). The “Code for Students” promulgated in 1943 differed from a similar set of rules issued in 1874 as the former sought to construct an ideal image of the Soviet school and student. The fact that the new “Code” came to play a largely symbolic function meant that it lost its ability to actually regulate school discipline on a day-to-day basis.