Исследовательские и контрисследовательские объекты: дизайн предоставляемых возможностей
This paper discusses the design of exploratory objects that stimulate curiosity and exploration without instructions or explicitly posed problems. It is proposed that such an object can be considered as a specially designed meta-affordance as a challenge to curiosity and exploratory activity containing a variety of different affordances of lower levels. The concepts of deexploratory and counter-exploratory objects are also introduced. Deexploratory objects prevent non-desirable curiosity and exploration. Counter-exploratory objects are designed to do damage during their exploration. It is concluded that the comparison of objects having different specially designed exploratory, deexploratory and counter-exploratory components provide an opportunity to better understand practices of guided activity (management, manipulation) with positive and negative intentions.
English full text: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322644152_Exploratory_and_Counter-Exploratory_Objects_Design_of_Meta-Affordances
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
In a questionnaire study with N = 1730 participants, aged from 11 to 72 years (M = 20.4, Me = 19, SD = 6,96), 60% females, we developed the Relevance of the Home Environment Questionnaire (RHEQ) aimed at measuring parameters of the home environment as inhabitants’ eco-social resource. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the seven-factor structure of the questionnaire was uniquely identified. The scales were titled as follows: Privacy, Potential, Self-presentation, Ergonomics, Home detachment, Plasticity, and Historicity. Consistency coefficients (Cronbach’s alpha) of scales ranged from .91 to .94. Age trends in four out of seven scales were found. Potential scores were higher in women, while Home detachment - in men. Content validity was investigated by comparison of home relevance scores in students living in their own homes or dormitories. Convergent validity was explored by measuring correlations of the scales with the Functionality of the Home Environment Questionnaire and the Home Attachment Scale. All psychometric properties are satisfactory. Data was discussed with regard to the possible applications in research, expertise, and psychotherapy.
In the article, the author's system of objects like toy-puzzle, which have been given for 3-year children, teenagers and adults for independent exploration, setting and solving different problems, is presented. Two main ways of the idea of the experimental object appearing are stated. The tasks of the exploratory object design and «participant’s interface» and "experimenter's interface" development are worked out. The main principles of the experimental objects’ integral system are formulated. It is shown, that real objects in some important aspects are more optimal then virtual for psychological experiments, diagnostics, and estimation. It is stated, that in the difficult activity insight can be connected not only with the solving but also with the productive new problems’ setting – for the others and for oneself. Creative constructology is observed in the aspect of constructing of tasks for creative thinking: the traditional tasks, as well as the problem situations with an open beginning and the end and the research environments, giving the freedom of creation for a participant and the freedom of dialog construction between her/him and the researcher.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.