Арабская весна и ее глобальное эхо: количественный анализ
After the beginning of the Arab Spring in 2011, explosive global growth was observed for the majority of indicators of sociopolitical destabilization in all parts of the World System. In order to identify the structure of this destabilization wave, we apply a series of statistical techniques such as trend analysis and t-tests to study the degrees of intensification of various instability indicators (as recorded by the Cross-National Time Series database). We reveal explosive global growth in anti-government demonstrations, riots, general strikes, terrorist attacks/guerrilla warfare and purges, as well as in the global integral index of sociopolitical destabilization. On the other hand, no statistically significant growth has been detected for assassinations and major government crises, whereas for such an important indicator of global sociopolitical destabilization, as the global number of coups and coup attempts, we find a statistically significant decrease.
The article investigates the financial resource management for the development of mass and elite sports at the regional level. The authors used statistical data of the Ministry of Sports that include 28 socio-economic indicators and 39 indicators of sports development in 82 regions for 2012 — 2015. A model of sports development was built using PLS-SEM method. We identified the following latent variables: economic development of the region; funds allocated to sports development; availability of resources; development of mass sports; development level of professional sports; results in elite sports, results in adaptive sports. The level of regional economic development affects the amount of funding allocated to the sports, which in turn determines the availability of resources. Availability of resources affects the success in the development of mass and professional sports. Success in professional sports determines results in great sporting achievements and adaptive sports. Structural modelling allowed us to identify measurable indicators of resources (model inputs) and results of sports development (model outputs). The authors assessed the effectiveness of transformation of inputs into outputs using DEA method. We investigated two models. The first one uses the indicators of mass sports development as outputs, the second one uses the indictors of professional sports development as outputs. The inputs of both models are the indicators of financial resources for sports. The simultaneous review of the effectiveness of two directions allows to emphasize the features of each region and evaluate balance in the development of mass and professional sports. The modelling results allow to identify several groups of regions with similar parameters, which may be due to their similar locations.
This article presents a cross-cultural analysis that explores the relationship between the importance of gossip and institutionalization. It is reasoned that as institutionalization increases, so does the difficulty of attaining direct information about events and people that would be consequential for any given individual. As a result, gossip should increase with institutionalization, and complexity generally. This general hypothesis is tested against data from a sample of recent and historical societies. The analysis finds support for the hypothesis and also explores the relationship between gossip and gender autonomy. The results are discussed in terms of understanding gossip as a strategy for attaining information when direct information gathering is inhibited by one’s social structural circumstances. The article closes with a discussion of possible implications for contemporary societies.
Corpus linguistics can be broadly defined in terms of two partially overlapping research dimensions . On the one hand, corpus linguistics is knowledge of how to compile and annotate linguistic corpora. On the other hand, corpus linguistics is a family of qualitative and quantitative methods of language study based on corpus data. The book presents the first steps taken by Russian corpus linguistics toward the development of language corpora and corpus-based resources as well as their use in grammatical and lexical analysis.
The first part of the book focuses on the annotation of Russian texts at several levels: lemmas, part of speech and inflectional forms, word formation, lexical-semantic classes, syntactic dependencies, semantic roles, frames, and lexical constructions. We discuss various theoretical principles and practical considerations motivating the corpus markup design, provide details on the creation of lexical resources (electronic dictionaries and databases) and text processing software, and consider complicated cases that present challenges for the annotation of corpora both manually and automatically. In most cases we describe the annotation of the Russian National Corpus (RNC, ruscorpora.ru) and its affiliate project FrameBank (framebank.ru).
Frequency data depend not only on the representativeness and balance of texts in a corpus, but also on the rules and tools used for annotation. The book addresses the development of evaluation standards for Russian NLP resources, namely, morphological taggers and dependency parsers. In addition, the book presents several experiments on automatic annotation and disambiguation: lemmatization of word forms not in the dic- tionary; word sense disambiguation based on vectors formed by lexical, semantic and grammatical cues of context; and semantic role labeling.
The final chapters of the first part of the book outline two types of frequency dictionaries based on the RNC data: a general-purpose frequency dictionary and a lexico-grammatical one.
The second part of the book presents an analysis of corpus data and includes a number of case studies of Russian grammar and lexical-grammatical interaction using quantitative methods. The key concept underlying our analysis is the behavioral profile (Hanks 1996; Divjak, Gries 2006), which is the frequency distribution of variable elements in a linguistic unit as attested in a corpus. This covers grammatical profiles (the frequency distribution of inflected forms of a word), constructional profiles (the frequency distri- bution of argument or any other constructions attested for a key predicate), lexical and semantic profiles (the frequency distribution of words and lexical-semantic classes in construction slots or, more generally, in the context of a word), and radial category profiles (the frequency distribution of word senses and word uses across the radial category network of a polysemous unit). We use grammatical, constructional, semantic, and radial category profiling to study tense, aspect and mood specialization of Russian verb forms; to identify singular-oriented and plural-oriented nouns; to investigate factors for prefix choice and prefix variation in natural perfectives (chistovidovye perfectivy); to analyze constraints on the filling of slots in a construction and how this affects the meaning of the construction, taking as an example the Genitive construction of shape and the spatial construction with the preposition poverkh ‘up and over’.
The quantitative corpus-based techniques used for the analysis vary from simple descriptive statistics (e. g., absolute frequencies, percentages, measures of the central ten- dency and outliers) to exact Fisher test and logistic regression. We claim that the vector modeling approaches to quantitative grammatical studies in theoretical linguistics are no less effective than in computational linguistics, where they have become a standard tool.
How are professors paid? Can the "best and brightest" be attracted to the academic profession? With universities facing international competition, which countries compensate their academics best, and which ones lag behind? Paying the Professoriate examines these questions and provides key insights and recommendations into the current state of the academic profession worldwide. Paying the Professoriate is the first comparative analysis of global faculty salaries, remuneration, and terms of employment. Offering an in-depth international comparison of academic salaries in twenty-eight countries across public, private, research, and non-research universities, chapter authors shed light on the conditions and expectations that shape the modern academic profession. The top researchers on the academic profession worldwide analyze common themes, trends, and the impact of these matters on academic quality and research productivity. In a world where higher education capacity is a key driver of national innovation and prosperity, and nations seek to fast-track their economic growth through expansion of higher education systems, policy makers and administrators increasingly seek answers about what actions they should be taking. Paying the Professoriate provides a much needed resource, illuminating the key issues and offering recommendations
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.