Grassroots urban protests in St. Petersburg: (non)participation in decision-making on the futures of city territories
This paper considers the efforts of local activists to participatein public discussions on contested territories in St. Petersburg, Russia, and influence political decision-making on their (re)development and change. It also questions to what degree such grassroots efforts become political and analyzes different contexts for, and barriers to, politicization. Complementing sociological theorization on civic engagement and civic participation with French pragmatism, we examine how these activists constantly shift between informal, context-specific forms of protest and more institutionalized and politicized ones. Using a case-study approach, we describe and compare two recent conflicts in St. Petersburg where local residents resisted (re)development projects imposed by political and economic elites: the defence of the Yurgens House in the historic center of the city against its expected demolition, and the protest against renovation in Alexandrino, a park area on the city’s periphery. The analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with local activists, participant and non-participant observation at public rallies and other gatherings, and qualitative analysis of protesters’ communication practices on social networks. We demonstrate that external political and social constraints encourage activists to be flexiblein their forms of engagement, using a wide repertoire of tools of contestation, using local knowledge tactically, operating rationally within legal frameworks, and addressing broad audiences in search for public justification and support. We conclude that, whether theselocal activists remain at the level of informal place-based initiatives or opt for more institutionalized and professionalized forms of civic participation, they insistently reject the political rationale of their efforts.
The article concerns interpretations of the term «civic engagement», operationalization of civic engagement phenomenon.
Objective To define indicators of civic engagement. The article consists of three parts. Firstly an interpretations of the term, secondly indicators of civic engagement and finally the characteristics and features of civil engagement in Russia. Methods of research
Public Opinion Foundation interviews for citizens of the Russian Federation aged 18 and over. These took place in person at the interviewees’ place of residence. Results
Foreign and Russian researchers have observed that civic engagement is a complex concept with no universal meaning. Researchers emphasise that behavioral practices and ideological preferences (such as social and interpersonal trust and willingness to cooperate) are significant components of civic engagement. The empirical section of the study indicated that Russians show a tendency to be involved in individual informal aspects of civic engagement (i.e., helping behavior). Participation levels in the activities of not for profit organisations and interest in politics appeared insubstantial. In short, dissociation between the citizens and the state was revealed in the sphere of civic engagement.
The results may prove a useful framework in the analysis of empirical social and political surveys.
The monograph is devoted to the phenomenon of politicization of constitutional institutes, which has emerged in recent years in the United States and the EU. The authors also analyze the peculiarities of electoral law and the electoral system in the United States, show the specifics of the election campaigns of individual parties and their leaders. The problem of revolutions as a form of national government, opposed in electoral procedures in the modern world is considered. Particular attention is paid to the process of politicization of the judiciary.
The research is focused on the nature of civic engagement across European countries and its prediction, based on European Values Study data (2008). A model of civic engagement which includes scalesof civic concern, civic confidence, non-violent elite-changing actions and organizational activities, which has been tested both on cross-country level and in pooled data, implies two factors, corresponding to “cognition” and “activity” parts of civic engagement. An attempt is made to envisage and conceptualize the predictors of civic engagement in different parts of Europe with the help of classical OLS regression and multilevel regression modelling, in such a way testing research hypotheses. It is shown that differences in civic engagement may be conceptualized within the framework of Laurent Thevenot’s three regimes of engagement.
Written by over 200 leading experts from over seventy countries, this handbook provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of the latest theory and research on volunteering, civic participation and nonprofit membership associations. The first handbook on the subject to be truly multinational and interdisciplinary in its authorship, it represents a major milestone for the discipline. Each chapter follows a rigorous theoretical structure examining definitions, historical background, key analytical issues, usable knowledge, and future trends and required research. The nine parts of the handbook cover the historical and conceptual background of the discipline; special types of volunteering; the major activity areas of volunteering and associations; influences on volunteering and association participation; the internal structures of associations; the internal processes of associations; the external environments of associations; the scope and impacts of volunteering and associations; and conclusions and future prospects. This handbook provides an essential reference work for third-sector research and practice, including a valuable glossary of terms defining over eighty key concepts. Sponsored by the International Council of Voluntarism, Civil Society, and Social Economy Researcher Associations (ICSERA; www.icsera.org), it will appeal to scholars, policymakers and practitioners, and helps to define the emergent academic discipline of voluntaristics.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.
This paper provides an analysis of the expirience of St. Petersburg, Kaliningrad and Karelia in the field of interaction between civic organizations and regional parliaments. The research is based on comparision of legal regulation and practical implmentation of civic participation in different regions.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.