The “Uyghur Terrorism” Phenomenon: Historical Background and Genesis
Xinjiang (XUAR – Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region since 1955) has become an integral part of the PRC since the moment of its establishment on October 1, 1949. The riots and different forms of protests there by followers of separatist ideas have also become an integral part of life in the region. With the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) – a radical Uyghur organisation originating in China that has spread its influence all over the Middle East – Uyghur terrorism has become an international problem. In March, 2017 a new video was released by the Uyghur ethnic minority members of the Islamic State who vowed “to return home and shed blood like rivers”. An Australian National University expert on Xinjiang, Dr. Michael Clarke, marked this as the first direct threat against China by ISIL Uyghurs (Clarke 2017). Chinese scholars agree that the influence of terrorism on the territory of the PRC is constantly growing (Gu 2014).
What are the motives and methods of Uyghur terrorists? What dynamics of their violent acts may we consider in the PRC and abroad? What legal and terrorist organisations have Chinese Uyghurs as members? And what distinguishes legal and so called non-system Uyghur opposition? In this article, we aim to answer these questions, describing the current issues of the problem and their historical background, presenting views from both inside and outside China.
The article dwells on the organization and activities of the Soviet advisors group, which assisted to the South China government of Sun Yatsen, its participation in financing Kuomintang political and military projects. The author pointed out that the main aim of the advisors group efforts was to form new Kuomintang power institutions and to bring its policy and army under control, for all that the tactics of implementation of strategy aim were constantly changing.
The article gives an overview of influence of stock market discrimination on market value of companies in China. There are two types of shares on Chinese stock market: class A shares, which are available for domestic investors, and class B shares, which are available for foreign investors. Such market structure is not a unique Chinese market's feature. It is also used in such countries as Finland, Singapore, Switzerland, Thailand, etc. What differs Chinese market from markets with similar structure is the fact that class B shares are traded with substantial discount to class A shares. Such a situation is explained by such factors informational asymmetry between domestic and foreign investors; different liquidity of different classes of shares; diversification effect, connected with investment in Chinese stock market; size of companies; ratio of amounts of shares of different classes; stock exchange where company's shares are traded.
The paper explores the evolution of trade and economic relations between Russia and Myanmar in 1948-2018. The author compares the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Myanmar cooperation with China, India and Russia, highlighting their features and prospects. Summarizing the results, the author states that, despite the currently modest volumes of trade and investment, the potential for developing foreign economic relations between Russia and Myanmar is very high. However, Myanmar is an important link in the regional strategies of China and India, which also belong to the BRICS and the SCO. Therefore, it is impossible for Russia to build its political and economic ties with Myanmar without taking these aspects of regional relations into account.
Modern capitalism favors values that undermine our face-to-face bonds with friends and family members. Focusing on the post-communist world, and comparing it to more 'developed' societies, this book reveals the mixed effects of capitalist culture on interpersonal relationships. While most observers blame the egoism and asocial behavior found in new free-market societies on their communist pasts, this work shows how relationships are also threatened by the profit orientations and personal ambition unleashed by economic development. Successful people in societies as diverse as China, Russia, and Eastern Germany adjust to the market economy at a social cost, relaxing their morals in order to obtain success and succumbing to increased material temptations to exploit relationships for their own financial and professional gain. The capitalist personality is internally troubled as a result of this "sellout," but these qualms subside as it devalues intimate qualitative bonds with others. This book also shows that post-communists are similarly individualized as people living in Western societies. Capitalism may indeed favor values of independence, creativity, and self-expressiveness, but it also rewards self-centeredness, consumerism, and the stripping down of morality. As is the case in the West, capitalist culture fosters an internally conflicted and self-centered personality in post-communist societies.