The collection is devoted to the centenary of the birth of outstanding Russian (Soviet) geographer Sergey Aleksandrovich Kovalev. For nearly 20 years he headed the Editorial Board of the «Problems of Geography» series. S.A. Kovalev is one of the founders of modern Russian geography of population, a pioneer of the service sector geographical studies and complex geographical research of rural areas, the founder of a scientific school in the field of rural settlement and social geography.
The collection includes articles on various issues of the geography of population and social geography. It begins with the memories about S.A. Kovalev. His unpublished works are also included in the book.
The paper examines the origins of kraevedenie (local studies), as a distinctive form of public mobilization for regional studies in the early 1920s, and traces its links to the conceptual shift in Russian geography as an academic discipline, which defined itself as a science concerned with the spatial characteristics of natural regions. The paper focuses on the first conference for regional studies (1921) and analyzes the visions of regional studies, as they were offered by the key figures who defined these studies in the 1920s, particularly in the earlier years of the decade – Vladimir Bogdanov and his colleagues from the school of geography at Moscow University, Alexander Fersman, Veniamin Semenov-Tyan-Shansky, and others. The author argues for a further need to examine the connections between new forms of public science, a conceptual shift in geography and related disciplines, and debates about the principles of administrative-territorial organization of the Soviet state, which were directly related to the making of the Soviet Union in the 1920s.
On the need to change the stereotypes embodied in school history textbooks. Write the history of gender symmetry.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.