No effect of the right posterior parietal cortex tDCS in dual-target visual search
«Subsequent search misses» represent a decrease in accuracy at detecting a second target in a visual search task. In this study, we tested the possibility to modulate this effect via inhibition of the right posterior parietal cortex trough transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The target stimuli were T-shapes presented among L-shaped distractors. The participant’s task was to detect targets or to report their absence. For each trial, targets could be represented by one high-salient target, one low-salient target, two different targets (one high salient and one low salient), two high salient targets, two low salient targets, or no targets at all (catch-trials). Offline tDCS was applied over the right (target site) or left (control site) posterior parietal cortex. Sham stimulation over the right posterior parietal cortex was included as a control (placebo). Stimulation lasted for 10 minutes. Afterwards, participants were asked to perform the experiment. Our findings suggest that stimulation did not modulate any of the task conditions, suggesting potential limitation of the study: either tDCS was not enough powerful to modulate the task performance or the task was too easy to be modulated by stimulation.
The heterogeneity of our visual environment typically reduces the speed with which a singleton target can be found. Visual search theories explain this via nontarget similarities and dissimilarities that affect grouping, perceptual noise, etc. Here, we show that increasing the heterogeneity of a display can facilitate rather than inhibit visual search for size and orientation singletons when heterogeneous features smoothly fill the transition between highly distinguishable nontargets. We suggest that this smooth transition reduce the “segmentability” of dissimilar items to otherwise separate subsets making the visual system to treat them as a near-homogenous sets opposing to a singleton.
Four experiments were performed to examine the hypothesis that abstract, nonspatial, statistical representations of object numerosity can be used for attentional guidance in a feature search task.Participants searched for an odd-colored target among distractors of one, two, or three other colors. An enduring advantage of large over small sets (i.e., negative slopes of search functions) was found, and this advantage grew with the number of colored subsets among distractors. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that the negative slopes cannot be ascribed to the spatial grouping between distractors but can be partially explained by the spatial density of the visual sets. Hence, it appears that observers relied on numerosity of subsets to guide attention. Experiments 3a and 3b tested the processes within and between color subsets of distractors more precisely. It was found that the visual system collects numerosity statistics that can be used for guidance within each subset independently. However, each subset representation should be serially selected by attention. As attention shifts from one subset to another, the “statistical power” effects from every single subset are accumulated to provide a more pronounced negative slope.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.