Topological Classification of Ω-stable Flows on Surfaces by Means of Effectively Distinguishable Multigraphs
Structurally stable (rough) flows on surfaces have only finitely many singularities and nitely many closed orbits, all of which are hyperbolic, and they have no trajectories joining saddle points. The violation of the last property leads to Ω-stable flows on surfaces, which are not structurally stable. However, in the present paper we prove that a topological classication of such flows is also reduced to a combinatorial problem. Our complete topological invariant is a multigraph, and we present a polynomial-time algorithm for the distinction of such graphs up to an isomorphism. We also present a graph criterion for orientability of the ambient manifold and a graph-associated formula for its Euler characteristic. Additionally, we give polynomial-time algorithms for checking the orientability and calculating the characteristic.