Are people more prejudiced towards groups that are perceived as coherent? A meta‐analysis of the relationship between out‐group entitativity and prejudice
A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between outgroup entitativity and prejudice. A quantitative analysis of 85 effect sizes from 33 independent samples showed a significant positive relationship between entitativity and prejudice (Fisher’s z = .414, 95% CI [.272, .557], p < .0001). Three possible moderators of the relationship between entitativity and prejudice were tested: conceptualization of the entitativity (essence-based entitativity scale, agency-based entitativity scale, common entitativity scale), the target of the prejudice, the measures of prejudice (attitudes, emotions, behavior towards outgroup). Results demonstrated that outgroup entitativity correlated with prejudice only when entitativity was conceptualized as an essence-based or common-based scale, and prejudice was measured as the attitude to the outgroup. The target of prejudice does not moderate the relationship between entitativity and prejudice.
The problem of the study is link between entitativity and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The purpose of the paper is to broad the domain of person’s psychological attachment to the organization from widely used constructs of organizational commitment and identification to perceived integrity versus entitativity. In organization settings there are two groups (or foci), which form strong person’s attachments: working group and the organization as a whole. These groups also called foci of organizational identification. Entitativity and organizational identification were measured with both foci. «The Group Entitativity Measurer» (GEM) was used to measure both foci of entitativity. Organization identification with work group was measured with A Hierarchical (Multicomponent) Model of In-Group Identification adapted to Russian sample. We suppose that strong psychological attachments to group form behavior that beneficial both for the employee and for the organization. This voluntary behavior called Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The sample is a factory workers (N = 124) mostly men from Vologda City of Russia. The perceived entitativity of the work group predicts identification with the organization as a whole (R2=0.07***) and with the working group (R2=0.18***). Significant relationships between OCB and perceived entitativity of two foci were absent. Nevertheless some forms of organizational identification predict OCB. Emotional identification with organization as a whole predicts 3% of OCB variation.
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We make a reconstruction of the main approaches to the study of lay theories of groups, communities and societies, propose a classification and systematization of the main areas which have developed in the framework of cognitive science that address the specifics of the perception of social entities (groups, communities, societies). It is shown that in spite of the weak correspondence of lay notions to the modern scientific theories, the former can serve as a basis for a better understanding of social phenomena.
The concept and aim of evidence-based entrepreneurship (EBE) is discussed as a strategy to overcome the divide between knowledge developed in the field of entrepreneurship and its use in practice. We argue that meta-analyses can and should be used in entrepreneurship research (and that it should also be used for qualitative work).
The paper uses meta-analysis to investigate the evolution of returns to education in Russia during the economic transition. We present the evidence of strong increase in returns to education in the 1990s. The returns to education peaked at 8% per additional year of schooling in the early 2000s. Since the mid-2000s the positive trend has been reversed. We find that the estimated returns are sensitive to sample design, specification and estimation methods. On average the estimated returns are higher if one uses imputed (instead of actual) years of education and estimates earnings equation with the OLS. Among covariates, the form of ownership and settlement type (urban/ rural) has the largest effect on the estimated returns to education. Regional variables have significant impact on the estimated returns only being included into the earnings equation at the oblast (province) level.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.