Психологический эссенциализм: разработка и апробация шкалы
The article presents the results of the development and approbation of the scale of psychological essentialism (belief in invariability of group membership). The results of confirmatory factor analysis conducted on eight different groups (ethnic (Russians / Tajiks / Jews), gender groups (men / women), homosexuals (gay / lesbians) and religious groups (Orthodox / Muslim)) (n = 897), demonstrated the good fit to empirical data. The multi-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the different groups measured on the scale, can be compared with each other within a single category. The scale shows good convergent and discriminant validity. On the one hand, psychological essentialism associated with group entitativity, group identification, right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and justification the social hierarchy; on the other hand there are not correlation between the psychological essentialism and open to experience and attitude to novelty.
The problem of the study is link between entitativity and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The purpose of the paper is to broad the domain of person’s psychological attachment to the organization from widely used constructs of organizational commitment and identification to perceived integrity versus entitativity. In organization settings there are two groups (or foci), which form strong person’s attachments: working group and the organization as a whole. These groups also called foci of organizational identification. Entitativity and organizational identification were measured with both foci. «The Group Entitativity Measurer» (GEM) was used to measure both foci of entitativity. Organization identification with work group was measured with A Hierarchical (Multicomponent) Model of In-Group Identification adapted to Russian sample. We suppose that strong psychological attachments to group form behavior that beneficial both for the employee and for the organization. This voluntary behavior called Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The sample is a factory workers (N = 124) mostly men from Vologda City of Russia. The perceived entitativity of the work group predicts identification with the organization as a whole (R2=0.07***) and with the working group (R2=0.18***). Significant relationships between OCB and perceived entitativity of two foci were absent. Nevertheless some forms of organizational identification predict OCB. Emotional identification with organization as a whole predicts 3% of OCB variation.
The paper analyses the logical structure of Kripke’s modal essentialist argument against materialism and also puts it in the broader context of contemporary analytic philosophy of mind. The comparison is made between Kripke’s essentialism and that of Aristotle. It is argued that Kripke’s anti-materialist argument had influenced significantly related arguments of Thomas Nagel, Joseph Levine and especially David Chalmers. However, as for the former, Kripke's notion of «necessary a posteriori» puts some pressure on his zombie argument. Chalmers tries to deal with this problem by introducing two-dimensional semantics. Due to the strength and convincingness of Kripke’s argument physicalistic materialism nowadays has lost its status of «orthodox» stance in the analysis of consciousness.
The article analyzes the monograph of A.B. Rakhmanov Social Philosophy of Max Weber, in which criticism of Weber's sociology is used as an excuse for the revivification of Marxist social utopia. Since the author's argument depends entirely on its ideological beliefs, it has zero value in scientific terms, but may serve as a useful starting point for diagnosing the current state of Russian sociology, especially in the context of its social utility.
We make a reconstruction of the main approaches to the study of lay theories of groups, communities and societies, propose a classification and systematization of the main areas which have developed in the framework of cognitive science that address the specifics of the perception of social entities (groups, communities, societies). It is shown that in spite of the weak correspondence of lay notions to the modern scientific theories, the former can serve as a basis for a better understanding of social phenomena.
The article describes the developing a short version of the dual process model scales by J. Duckitt that allow getting an integrated exploratory approach for the assessment of authoritarianism. This area of research is not widespread in Russia in contrast to foreign social psychology. Unfortunately, there are only a few studies in Russia that advance our understanding of the indicated problems, and these few studies likely put more questions than give answers. It can be partly explained by the lack of appropriate available, reliable and valid measures in Russian. Dual process model for the study of authoritarianism offers the scales designed to measure: (1) right-wing authoritarianism that reflects the motivation and attitudes to maintain and preservation of the social cohesion, order, stability, and collective security; (2) social dominance orientation that reflects the motivation and attitudes to maintain and preservation of the dominance and superiority; (3) dangerous worldview that reflects views of the social world as the dangerous and threatening; and (4) competitive worldview that reflects views of the social world as the competitive and ferocious. The data for the analysis were collected in the survey of 241 participants, mostly residents of Moscow (Central Federal District) and Ulyanovsk (Volga Federal District). Using confirmatory factor analysis the four models containing the different number of dimensions of the short version of the dual process model scales were tested. The short version of scales was successfully compiled, the measures can be considered a reliable and valid measure to study of authoritarianism in Russia.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.