Справедливость как социологическая идея: от классики к современности
This article attempts to analyze some theories of justice in classical and contemporary sociology, namely in the theories of K. Marx, H. Spencer, É. Durkheim, J. Habermas, L. Boltanski and L. Thévenot. It is emphasized that justice in sociology is not only an object of study, not only a value and an ideal, but also a cognitive category and an explanatory principle of social order in general. The article explores the historical link of the idea of justice with the problems of minorities and of the formation of new social actors. Justice is a multidimensional phenomenon; then it functions as a mediator, an expression and a concentration of many other values (legitimacy, equality, honesty, recognition, etc.), unifying them and being merged with them into an universal whole.