Развитие представлений о факторах, определяющих рейтинги телепередач
The article shows how from the middle of the XX century there was a reflection of the various factors affecting the value of the television audience. In the opinion of the authors of the article, originally factors of content and form of telecasts were conceived to attract the audience. Later there was a transition to a systematic understanding of the factors of both socio-cultural and physical nature, external to television production.
The article (Continued from #8) deals with the issues connected with the impact of the interior institutional, cultural and communicative matrices on the functioning of Russian media and television in particular, as the most popular and influential resource of public communication. The author reveals the link between institutional matrices, defining the life of the society in general, communicative matrices, regulating social communication, and media matrices setting the limits of professional activity in the sphere of television.
The collection contains articles presented by authors in frame of the XI All-Russian Scientific Conference "Modern Screen Worlds : Myths and Reality" which was held at the State Institute of Art of the Russian Federation Ministry of Culture in Moscow on 21-23 April, 2014. Different issues discussed relating to the latest trends in the field of screen arts (film, television, digital video, et al.) in a variety of aspects - art criticism, phylosophical, sociological, etc.
The article examines some issues connected with the impact of the interior institutional, cultural and communicative matrices on the functioning of Russian media and television in particular, as the most popular and influential resource of public communication. The author reveals the link between institutional matrices, defining the life of the society in general, communicative matrices, regulating social communication, and media matrices setting the limits of professional activity in the sphere of television.
This book is the first to explore the composition of television ratings in a cross-cultural, comparative manner. Using both communication history and the sociology of quantification, Television Audiences Across the World illuminates why the whole television industry, the television audiences themselves, refer to ratings as the main way to represent the television-watching public. It shows how a specific technology, the peoplemeter, has become a "state of the art" in very different cultural contexts, including major non-Western countries. It analyses how television audience measurement succeeds in homogenizing diverse ways of watching television among different populations, creating "apparent nations", and at times ignoring entire regions or parts of the population. The chapters in this volume discuss why television audience measurement has become the dominant model for the evaluation of popularity in the post-modern world, the true "voice of the masses", still powerful in supposedly fragmented societies.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.