Микроперепись - 2015 ставит под сомнение результативность мер по стимулированию рождаемости
The paper introduces microdata of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and GeoRating Project that is also based on the GEM Methodology as supportive business demography statistics’ data sources in the scientific research steps for economic studies. To analyze the data collected via these surveys, and its validity and reliability authors provide the reader with a list of standard OECD and Eurostat definitions for the main vital events (births and deaths) of private enterprises, as well as enterprises’ birth rates, death rates and survival rates calculating. The paper states the advantages and disadvantages of adult population surveys’ microdata application for the empirical research of reproduction processes in the active stock of businesses, including nascent and newly-born enterprises. In addition, with use of these surveys microdata the picture diagram method is described as one of the most effective ways to graphically depict the age (duration) and motivation distribution of entrepreneurial cohorts; applications have been shown which demonstrate the range of possible analyses, such as cross-countries and regional comparisons of entrepreneurship development.
Russia’s declining birth rate is linked to a delay in a family’s decision to have children and to uncertainty about the place of children in a couple’s relationship. Despite the rise of individualism and the importance of career and self-realization, however, the family retains a very important place in Russian society.
In the article authors use the vital birh and death registration data on 10 regions exctracted from the Rosstat database to evaluate an input of international migrant into Russian fertility and mortality levels.
The authors discuss social and demographic processes in the rural regions of the Russian Near North and, first of all, in the Kostroma region – one of the socially problematic regions in the Russian Federation. In the article, the attention is focused on the analysis of mechanisms and assessment of scales of the depopulation: high mortality, migration of youth and middle aged people to the cities, deformations in age and gender structure with prevalence of the elderly population and a small share of children. The authors state essential distinctions of demographic indicators between municipalities in the Kostroma region and emphasize importance of social and demographic research on a basic municipal level. Indicators of the low life expectancy, high mortality caused by external reasons (alcoholism, murders, suicides, etc.), and high migration of youth are seen as the objective indicators of social problems in the local communities. It demands special attention on the part of the government authorities that plan social programs and take administrative decisions.
This chapter discusses the features of the development of the Russian population and the results of population projections to 2025
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.