Роль эмоциональных черт наблюдателя при восприятии эмоциональных лиц на раннем этапе переработки информации
The role of observers’ emotional traits in the emotion recognition from facial expressions has been studied. According to Forgas’ Affect Infusion Model, the role of observers’ emotional traits will differ depending on the task type. More constructive tasks will be influenced by emotional traits to the greater extent. This prediction has been tested in the experiment with two types of tasks. In the more constructive task, participants had to recognize happiness, sadness, fear, and anger naming the emotions. In the less constructive task, participants did the same but chose one of the two emotion terms instead of naming the emotions. Recognition accuracy and sensitivity were related more to the emotional traits when participants performed more constructive tasks. Emotion congruency effect has been found for happiness and sadness. All results were obtained under stimulus presentation duration of 200 ms, which corresponds to the earlier stage of information processing.
The influence of a perceiver’s emotional state on the perception of emotion was studied. Experiments were focused on the emotion congruency effect. Emotional congruency is observed when an individual perceiving ambivalent facial expressions tends to see an emotion that corresponds to his/her momentary emotional state. In two experiments, emotional congruency was obtained for happy and sad emotional states. It was hypothesized that emotional congruency would be stronger in the earlier stages of information processing. To test this suggestion, four durations of stimulus presentation were used, namely 50, 100, 200, and 1000 ms. We found no dependence of emotion congruency from stimulus duration.
Emotion congruence in emotion perception is manifested in increasing sensitivity to the emotions corresponding to the perceiver’s emotional state. In this study, an experimental procedure that robustly generates emotion congruence during the perception of ambiguous facial expressions has been developed. It was hypothesized that emotion congruence will be stronger in the early stages of perception. In two experiments, happiness and sadness were elicited in 69 (mean age 20.2, 57 females) and 58 (mean age 18.2, 50 females) participants. Then they determined what emotions were present in the ambiguous faces. The duration of stimulus presentation varied for the analysis of earlier and later stages of perception. The effect of emotion congruence was obtained in both experiments: happy participants perceived more happiness and less sadness in ambiguous facial expression compared to sad participants. Stimulus duration did not influence emotion congruence. Further studies should focus on the juxtaposition of the models connecting the emotion congruence mechanisms either with perception or with response generation.
The aim of the current study was to provide an empirical evidence of an emotional state’s influence on the updating of affective information in working memory. The emotional congruence effect was expected: participants in a happy emotional state would be more successful in updating positive information compared to negative and neutral information. It was also expected that participants in a negative emotional state would show the opposite pattern of results. The sample included 66 subjects (age: M = 18.56; SD = 1.02). To measure updating, an affective n-back task was applied with positive, negative and neutral words as stimuli. To induce an emotional state, a combination of autobiographical memories and music listening was used. No emotional congruence effect has been obtained. The pattern of results for reaction times and accuracy was similar in both groups; most likely, it was partially caused by the sequence effect. In all types of trials, participants responded faster after emotion induction. The accuracy of responses to negative (M = 0.83; SD = 0.12) was significantly different compared to positive (M = 0.78; SD = 0.16) and neutral trials (M = 0.73; SD = 0.21). The results show that the updating of emotional stimuli is more effective compared to neutral stimuli; among emotional stimuli, updating negative stimuli is more effective compared to positive stimuli.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.