Качество планирования городских транспортных сетей: в зеркале классических моделей теории транспортного потока
Total government spending on road construction and maintenance in Russia are about 2.5 times lower than the funds required by the technical norms. This happens due to the lack of the interconnection between road funding and taxes and charges levied on road users. The mechanism of road funds has been introduced in 2011, but the problem still exists. Taxes, which are concerned with the car ownership and road usage (transport tax, fuel tax, utilization fees, custom dues) cover about 50 % of the total governmental spending on road infrastructure (and about 25 % in Moscow), the rest is covered by the general taxes. The road pricing is seen as a good alternative way of road funding. The involvement of the private investor into the construction of the toll roads was first implemented in the end of 1990s, when several pilot projects were realized. The large-scale implementation of the PPP principles is connected with the creation of The State Company Russian Highways (Avtodor). The mission of the company is to form and develop Russia’s national toll highway network using the private investments. Toll roads are also constructed or discussed in the big cities, such as Moscow, St. Petersburg, Ryazan, etc. In cities where the majority of offices, plants, and shopping malls are concentrated the road pricing is not only the best source of funding, but also the transport demand management instrument. Some other sources of road funding are emerging in the largest cities (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan): parking fees, cordon tolls, pollution charges. Moreover the heavy vehicles (more than 12 ton) have been obliged to pay for the distance travelled on federal road network since November 2015. This is expected to provide additional income of about 50 billion rubles per year for the federal road fund. This chapter provides a detailed overview and appraisal of the road pricing implementation in the Russian Federation.
For Russia, with its vast territory, reliable transport links are traditionally of particular importance for maintaining territorial integrity, enhancing geopolitical influence and competitiveness in the international market. An efficient road network mostly determines the country's economic growth opportunities through the development of regions, providing conditions and opportunities for the free movement of goods and services, cargo and passengers.In 2016, the Institute of transport Economics and transport policy of the Higher School of Economics built a gravity model describing trade flows between the subjects of the Russian Federation. It showed that when the travel time between regions decreases by 1%, the volume of trade between them increases by 1.7%. However, the current state of the road infrastructure does not allow us to meet the needs of the Russian economy and the competitiveness of international cargo transportation through the territory of Russia.
This paper considers the issue of road network development assessing in cases of high population density in large urban settlements and agglomerations. In order to ensure the acceptable quality of the transport system of densely built-up urban areas that are not covered by the high-speed rail service areas, it is necessary to provide an appropriate road network density. The optimal density of the road network can be established by using the mutual mathematical relationships between network density and the transport demand generated by different urban fabric patterns. This paper proposes a method for estimating the required density of urban streets on the basis of the height of residential buildings and the number of residents, the proportion of residents using the car. It is proposed to determine the length of city streets per 1 km2 of urban territory and the minimum distance between city streets taking into account the need to ensure the required level of service.
The issue of road safety is a key one today. The Russian National Project "Safe and Quality Roads" envisages the introduction of new technical requirements and standards for road construction based on digital technologies and the introduction of automated and robotic technologies for road traffic management.
This work proposes the development of an automated software system aimed at improving the driver's perception of the road. The detailed description of possibilities of this system is given and its testing is carried out during modeling of the situation after the introduction of the system on the specific section of M-5 highway "Moscow - Chelyabinsk" between Miass and Ust-Katav.
Complex meteorological conditions, large differentiation of traffic flow and a large number of factors affecting the condition of the road surface characterize this section. Received results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system aimed at improving the driver's perception of the road, and as a result, to improve the system of road traffic organization and increase its safety.
Traffic jam on the road network of cities, increasing transportation costs and other negative consequences, require new solutions to improve mobility in the traffic. This problem is one of the most important for old industrial cities, where it is impossible to expand the road network. This article is analyzed of the main ways to improve traffic management in old industrial city of using new innovation modern transport systems.
The celebrated Nagel–Schreckenberg model allows to study a reasonably large class of one-dimensional traffic flow models with parallel updates. Unfortunately further generalizations of this construction turn out to be not especially fruitful. Namely, numerical simulations of such generalizations did not demonstrate stable behavior qualitatively different from the original model, and more to the point their mathematical treatment is still not available even up to nowadays. I'll discuss several features of these models which partially explain the failure of both numerical and mathematical attempts to study generalizations of the Nagel–Schreckenberg model.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.