Практики тестирования чужого ума: от регламентированности к свободе
The article discusses a trend in tests developing looking at tests with restricted actions of test takers (this takes place in a situation of solving explicitly formulated problems with the only right answer) and diagnostic problem situations tests with novel content, high degree of uncertainty, open beginning and end. Open beginning is being used more frequently in testing. It suggests freedom of posing own research questions to study reality and searching answers through interaction with this reality. Emergence of mass tests of exploratory behaviour reflects the belief that ability to cope with novelty and uncertainty through active exploration will be the most required ability in the nearest future. The author also examines issues of testing intelligence and creativity in the situation of novelty and uncertainty, including the “the problem of judging”. It is noted that any test on cognitive abilities (and especially on creative thinking) is an attempt of its designers to prove their infinite wisdom. As it is supposed that intelligence and creativity of any person applied in a new situation are described within a model designed by a test’s developer who possess super intelligence. Inevitable mistakes that appear within this approach may be corrected through a dialogue between different research groups or the situation may exacerbate if researchers avoid criticism. The author analyses the fundamental methodological mistake of testing creativity – a pre-prepared list with “standard creative answers” against which solutions of participants are checked. This mistake was discussed using the example of the PISA-2012 creative task (rankings of countries in education are based on this PISA test). An optimistic thesis is put forward: humankind will never be completely ready for evaluating its creative potential regardless advantages in tests development, because this creative potential is ahead of testing methods. However, tests play an important role in preparing humankind for this, as they are new and important part of this creative potential. Key words: psychology of activities in the situation of novelty and uncertainty, cognitive abilities and skills, intelligence, creativity, exploratory behavior, tests development.