Evolution of the system of education in area of public administration in Russia, including development of the network of schools and institutes of public administration, development of the content of programs on the levels of bachelor, specialitet and master degree programs, development of the federal state standards in the area of education at public administration.
The article describes the principal theoretical approaches to the problem of education equality. The author shows that discussions about equality usually start with the question of ensuring equal access to education for a certain social group, but then switch to the question of equal education results. The article also systematizes the pedagogic mechanisms that increase the inequality in education.
An attempt to reveal the essence of personalization additional education of children, ideas, approved in September 2014 the government's concept of additional education of children. Based on data from a large-scale survey conducted by the Levada Center in the framework of the fundamental research program of the Higher School of Economics, the author presents ideas about the result, the process of personalization and social background of additional education. The text formulated contradictions, which are the basis for further research.
The authors analyzed the key methods of talented students’ identification that are widely used in international and Russian practice: contests, educational outcomes, special testing and teachers’ opinions of the students. The authors note that no criterion is universal, because it is impossible to formalize talent of students, identify students with non-standard thinking and unique competences who do not possess skills of passing formal assessment in educational process. In order to enhance effectiveness of talented youth identification it is important to use all methods integrally and do not give preferences to a single one. The authors analyzed key tools of talented youth students’ support: scholarships and grants, preferences in university admission, schools for talented children under auspices of universities, classes for talented children, extra-curricular activities, summer schools, special centres for gifted children. Special attention is given to introduction of educational programs and methods of working with gifted children, parents and teachers. The article presents a retrospective analysis of measures that the RF government has taken since 1999 to identify and support gifted students. The authors make a conclusion that the present legislation that regulates these activities is quite controversial; it is not uncommon that mechanisms of program documents’ implementation are absent.
The article discusses a trend in tests developing looking at tests with restricted actions of test takers (this takes place in a situation of solving explicitly formulated problems with the only right answer) and diagnostic problem situations tests with novel content, high degree of uncertainty, open beginning and end. Open beginning is being used more frequently in testing. It suggests freedom of posing own research questions to study reality and searching answers through interaction with this reality. Emergence of mass tests of exploratory behaviour reflects the belief that ability to cope with novelty and uncertainty through active exploration will be the most required ability in the nearest future. The author also examines issues of testing intelligence and creativity in the situation of novelty and uncertainty, including the “the problem of judging”. It is noted that any test on cognitive abilities (and especially on creative thinking) is an attempt of its designers to prove their infinite wisdom. As it is supposed that intelligence and creativity of any person applied in a new situation are described within a model designed by a test’s developer who possess super intelligence. Inevitable mistakes that appear within this approach may be corrected through a dialogue between different research groups or the situation may exacerbate if researchers avoid criticism. The author analyses the fundamental methodological mistake of testing creativity – a pre-prepared list with “standard creative answers” against which solutions of participants are checked. This mistake was discussed using the example of the PISA-2012 creative task (rankings of countries in education are based on this PISA test). An optimistic thesis is put forward: humankind will never be completely ready for evaluating its creative potential regardless advantages in tests development, because this creative potential is ahead of testing methods. However, tests play an important role in preparing humankind for this, as they are new and important part of this creative potential. Key words: psychology of activities in the situation of novelty and uncertainty, cognitive abilities and skills, intelligence, creativity, exploratory behavior, tests development.