Conceptual Approaches to Analysis of Social Unity
Different conceptual aspects of social unity and their interrelations are discussed. The semantic analysis of concepts depicting the social unity is given. The author distinguishes two types of social integration designated as "integration of society" and "integration with society. Besides, two other aspects of social integration, namely social cohesion (solidarity, consensus), on the one hand, and social regulation (rules, norms and values), on the other hand, as well as the interaction between them, are analyzed. According to author, the two forms of social integration, cohesion and adherence to abstract rules, are united by civil solidarity and civil society.
Objective: to identify the diversity of cohesion forms in confi nement institutions. Methods: qualitative analyses based on in-depth semi-structured interviews. Results: the study included adaptation of Western methodologies of the cohesion phenomenon analysis to the Russian reality, and operationalization of the moral bases of group cohesion. This served as the bases for designing a guide for in-depth semi-structured interviews; 10 interviews were conducted with people recently released from general and strict regime colonies. Content analysis of the interviews revealed a number of structural sections that demonstrate the diversity of cohesion forms, alongside with one that is most meaningful to the prisoners and therefore the most well perceived and articulated by respondents. Analysis of the latter allowed to identify a set of groups showing different degree and nature of cohesion. By the degree of cohesion one can identify the poorly cohesive groups ("louts"), moderately cohesive ("reds", "thieves") and highly cohesive ("fi ghters"). By the nature of cohesion in the prisoners’ community, there are both groups united on the basis of social morality ("reds", "thieves") and groups demonstrating a high degree of cohesion based on the social justice morality ("fi ghters"). A detailed analysis of the latter group also showed that the cohesion can have both traits of morality, social justice, and features of social order moral. Scientifi c novelty: using the socio-psychological theory of the moral motives in determining the bases of cohesion. Practical signifi cance: the research results can be applied for the development of socio-psychological techniques for the penal system reform
We analyze the contexts of use of the category "people" in the Soviet and post-Soviet primary school textbooks. Empirical base of the research: 3 textbooks (1970-80-ies) and 12 textbooks (2001-2006). The analysis of the frequency of the use of the concept "people" in various meanings demonstrated: in Soviet textbooks the meanings "working people" and "co-citizenship" are dominated, in post - Soviet – “ethno-cultural community"."Ethnic groups" are mentioned in the Soviet textbooks only in the context of natural-climatic zones, with emphasis on economic specialization as "traditional" type of production. In the post-Soviet textbooks "ethnic groups" are mentioned in the civil and historical contexts. This includes the possibility and necessity of definite ethnic identification of the individual, the criteria of which are language, folklore, anthropological characteristics, mental warehouse. Approval of homogeneity of the group on the basis of these criteria leads to the approval of the homogeneity of the nation, as a nation as a political community is conceived in the modern textbooks as a developed form of the ethnic community. Such contexts are fixed through the approval of morality of the social order, which leads to the fixation of social hierarchy and to the spread of discriminatory practices against minorities.
Sociological theory concluded for a long time that social integration can not be based only on the mutual economic nterest and interdependence. The important role in this connection belongs to such forms of integration as solidarity (cohesion, consensus, etc.), on the one hand, and social regulation and self-regulation (symbols, values, norms), on the other hand. The first of these forms supposes the unity with some ("one's own") people and common identity with the members of one's own group as such; the other form is the adherence to definite rules having symbolic, value and normative aspects. It can be formulated a kind of sociological quasi-law: the more great and complex is a society, the more important in it are the abstract, general rules and the less important is solidarity, and vice versa.
Germany is a diverse country, a fact that offers opportunities for future development in a globalized world, but also poses challenges for the social coexistence of people. The majority of Germans tend to regard increasing diversity as an asset rather than a danger, and the acceptance of social diversity in Germany is well developed. At the same time, acceptance of diversity varies widely depending on the region and the dimension of diversity. While acceptance of people with disabilities or another sexual orientation than one’s own is high, religious diversity is far less accepted. These are the findings of a representative study, “Cohesion in Diversity: Diversity Barometer 2019 of Robert Bosch Stiftung,” for which 3,025 German residents aged 16 and older were interviewed by telephone about their opinions and attitudes toward various social groups. Where and with regard to whom are people especially accepting of diversity? According to the overall diversity index, which is based on a scale from 0 to 100, the mean value for the acceptance of diversity in Germany currently stands at 68 points, clearly in the positive range. At the same time, there is a noticeable west-east and north-south divide: The top five ranks are occupied by Hamburg (72 points), Schleswig-Holstein (71 points), Bremen (71 points), Berlin (71 points), and Lower Saxony (70 points), in other words, the three city-states and two large states in northern Germany. Next come the other states in what used to be West Germany. Bringing up the rear are the former East German states (excluding Berlin), with scores between 65 and 61 points. In addition to regional differences, there are sometimes significant differences in the acceptance of individual dimensions of diversity. In Germany, acceptance of people with disabilities (83 points) and non-heterosexual orientation (77 points), for instance, but also of people with a different ethnic background (73 points) is high. A majority are still open to people of a different age (70 points), a different sex (69 points), and low socio-economic standing (58 points). Skepticism seems to be predominant solely with regard to religion and religious diversity (44 points). However, the findings suggest that, despite the current media focus, this result is not a rejection of “Muslims” alone; the low approval rating tends to indicate a general reservation against religious lifestyles and traditions. When it comes to factors that can positively impact approval of a pluralistic society, individual and personal aspects are particularly important; these include empathy, (a rather left) political leanings orientation, and a positive attitude toward globalization. Structural factors (economic strength, unemployment rate, etc.) in people’s home region are of secondary importance, although regions with higher income disparities also show greater acceptance of diversity. This finding suggests that the existence of a certain level of diversity is a basic prerequisite for having to learn and practice a constructive way of dealing with diversity in the first place.
The article analyzes cohesion concerns in sacral text. The paper outlines the main types of text cohesion such as lexical, grammatical and lexico-grammatical ones. Different ways and means of cohesion realization in the text of New Testament are considered particularly.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.