This article looks at the evolution of state agricultural policy in the context of a change in the general political line from the radical liberalism of the 1990s to state patronage and active support of the agricultural sector today. The privatization of land and the creation of private farms, the National Priority Project Development of the Agro-Industrial Complex, the adoption of Russia’s Food Security Doctrine, Russia’s accession to the WTO, and import substitution in response to Western sanctions are considered as stages of this policy. The author draws the conclusion that agricultural policy is inconsistent because of its excessive dependence on the political context, as determined by foreign policy collisions and the transformation of Russia’s internal development model.
This paper considers the problem of institutional development in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze existing approaches to explaining the causes and factors of institutional development and seek to determine why there was no evidence of institutional convergence in European countries between 1990 and 2014. We look at the theoretical and methodological limitations of approaches to the analysis of institutional development characteristic of mainstream political science. The data we utilize comprise a wide range of quantitative variables which measure levels of institutional development, social trust and political capital. We also use our own Total Factor Productivity (TFP) estimates obtained through non-parametric methods using raw data. We analyze relationships between the variables using correlations, regression analysis and clustering. The results of statistical analysis reveal the mechanism through which TFP influences institutional development: we show that TFP is a necessary prerequisite for institutional transformation.
The concepts of morality, justice and good have always loomed large in the perception of economic science. In this article I attempt to reveal the regularities of moral criticism of economic science. The first section is devoted to the challenges facing contemporary economic science in the face of growing political influence of populist parties and movements. The second section looks at some factors contributing to a moral critique of economic science. The third section looks at the works of Hobbes, Adam Smith and Carlyle to reveal different approaches to the regulation of human behavior (by analyzing state coercion, the market and morality). An analysis of initial stages in the emergence of the conservative-romantic program of making the market mechanism subordinate to the ideals of justice and the common good highlights its fundamental problem: the need for enforcing compliance not only with legal, but also with moral norms.
Different conceptual aspects of social unity and their interrelations are discussed. The semantic analysis of concepts depicting the social unity is given. The author distinguishes two types of social integration designated as "integration of society" and "integration with society. Besides, two other aspects of social integration, namely social cohesion (solidarity, consensus), on the one hand, and social regulation (rules, norms and values), on the other hand, as well as the interaction between them, are analyzed. According to author, the two forms of social integration, cohesion and adherence to abstract rules, are united by civil solidarity and civil society.
Review of the book I. FILATOVA, A. DAVIDSON. Russia and South Africa: Building Bridges, Moscow, The Publishing House of the State University-Higher School of Economics, 2012.
This article, based on the findings of a number of nationwide surveys conducted in 1999-2016, provides an analysis of the features and dynamics of a model of income stratification and its perception in Russian society. It is shown that the existing model of income stratification is marked by the dominance of middle strata and is fairly accurately reflected in popular consciousness judging from people’s perception of their position in society. The economic crisis that started in 2014 has not so far brought any serious changes to the model of income stratification or the perception by Russians of their place in society. As for the methodological as distinct from substantive conclusions, the article shows that the methods of building income stratification models for Russia should be looked for among relative methods used in developed countries and not absolute methods used in developing countries. Besides, considering regional disparities in terms of progress of modernization, in analyzing the social structure of Russian society it makes sense to use aggregate models of income stratification based on prior stratification of regional communities rather than models based on average nationwide indicators.
This article (one of a series of two articles) analyzes specific features of income stratification in Russia in comparison with other countries (Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, Venezuela, Mexico, China) based on data from several nationwide surveys. It demonstrates that the income stratification model, which refers average per capita incomes at a specific household to the median income in a country, captures well the peculiarities involved in different models of society. It uses the data of an international comparative study, International Social Survey Programme (ISSP), to show that the Russian income stratification model is typical of Europe. At the same time, Russia is in-between Europe and the former Third World in terms of the extent of income inequalities.
The conflict between positive law and the idea of justice has always been the driver of transitional social orders. The Russian legal system as a historical phenomenon can only be understood in the context of the changing etymology of the concept of justice interpreted as a moral value, a legal phenomenon and a historical tradition. In keeping with this approach the author reconstructs the key characteristics inherent in the Russian legal tradition, the stages of their transformation during the course of modernization processes in the 18th-19th centuries, their wholesale destruction during the Soviet era and restoration in the post-Soviet period. Current debate on law and legal consciousness highlights the importance of some elements of the national legal tradition, but is incapable of reaffirming the conservative theory of "the rut" in Russian legal and political development. The author urges the need to develop a new concept of justice which would overcome legal dualism, bridge the gap between positive law and conservative mental stereotypes in order to implement the necessary liberal program of social and political reform.
The paper compares some basic aspects of the national identity of Russian and American students. It analyzes the students’ normative perceptions of their countries (a desired type of relations between the country and other nations^ attitudes towards the basic pricipals of social life) and the aspects of attitudes towards the country making it an object of national identity (country favoritism, an admissible level of criticism towards the country, and a specificity of duty fulllment to the country).
In 2015 the publishing house of St. Tikhon’s Orthodox Humanities University (PSTGU) brought out a collection of articles entitled The Invisible Church. Social Effects of the Parish Community in Russian Orthodoxy. This review looks at the book from the standpoint of an engaged reader whose research interests are outside sociology of religion. It considers the articles in each section one by one and articulates the questions that arise when reading them.
Abstract. The authoritarian regimes in post-Soviet states emerged and consolidated in an absence of strong traditions of civil society and the fact that the anticommunist revolution of 1991 in the Soviet Union was not pre- dated by a “revolution of values.” The democratic transit in the newly inde- pendent states failed and democratic changes were suspended, among other things, because the new ruling layers that had monopolized power and prop- erty in post-Soviet states never wanted continued market and democratic re- forms. In short, the authoritarian regimes, on the one hand, owe their stabil- ity to the power/property institution, the nomenklatura as the ruling stratum and the patronage state. On the other, authoritarianism in the post-Soviet space was kept within certain limits by power equilibrium between region- al elites and de-nomenklaturization of the political elite while an absence of political and social actors that need democratic transformations was and re- mains the highest barrier on the way toward such transformations.
The article is focused on the new crisis in Russia and its projection on the regions including the impact on regional economic development, labor markets and household money incomes in 2014. Factors and spatial features of the new crisis are compared with the previous crises of 19902000. Different territories prospects are analized as well as the state anti-crisis policy to support the regions.
Socially responsible (ethical) consumption in Russia is only making its first steps and is fairly fragmented. In most cases, consumers engage in practices of one particular sort, whether ethical purchasing, ethical boycotts or waste sorting. This article presents the findings of a representative empirical study aiming to identify specific qualities of citizens participating in various socially responsible consumption practices as well as factors facilitating Russians' engagement in the above practices. The article purports that market-oriented practices, such as ethical purchasing and boycotts, and non-market ones, such as separate collection of waste, are driven by different factors and relate to the sphere of civil society in different ways. The article concludes that differentiated strategies need to be implemented in this area by NGOs and management groups of various levels.
The role of prominent Soviet economist academician A. Anchishkin explores in the article, the 80th anniversary of whose birth we celebrate, in the development of ideas and the formation of economic forecasting in the country at the time when the directive planning acted as a leading tool of economic management. Besides, the special role of A. Anchishkin noted in developing a comprehensive program of scientific and technical progress, an information basis for the development of long-term forecasts for the development of the country, moreover, his contribution to the creation of long-term forecasting methodology and improvement of the statistical basis for economic analysis and economic planning. The authors show that the development of social and economic forecasting in the period after 1991, which has undertaken a number of functions of economic planning, largely relied on the further development of A. Anchishkin's ideas, at the same time responding to the new challenges of developing the Russian economy during its entry into the world economic system.
The institution of private property has existed in Russia for almost 25 years. However, the legitimacy of private property rights established in this period, as well as the legitimacy of the institution itself, remains questionable. Despite the change of generations and the improvement of living standards, many opinion polls show that the majority of Russians still have a negative view not only of the privatization of the 1990s and its results, but also of private property as such. Optimistic forecasts on the adaptation of people to new realities have not come true. The authors analyze the reasons for and consequences of the illegitimacy of private property rights today and compare different ways of legitimizing these rights. They conclude that there is no sense in discretionary state intervention in this protracted process, and that the focus should be on the reduction of inequality and the enforcement of formal institutions without exception or privilege. © 2017 East View Information Services. All rights reserved.
The article describes the poverty's situation in Russia and the attitude of Russians to the poors