Региональные факторы личностных особенностей жителей Российской Федерации: сравнительный анализ результатов MMPI-2 в шести городах
Traditionally, in studies of the role of socio-cultural factors in development of personality traits these factors are operationalized at the macro-level (as race, ethnicity, nationality, country of residence) and do not allow to take into account regional and local features that are particularly widespread in such countries as Russia. The aim of this study was to determine effects of the city and region of residence (both direct effects and effects mediated by age and gender of the subjects) on the strategies of response to items and on personality traits of the subjects. The data obtained from the approbation of the second version of Minnesota Multiphasic study Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) on a sample of 1237 subjects from six cities of Russia (Barnaul, Moscow, Perm, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Tver, Tomsk) were analyzed. According to the results, there is an invariant personality structure at the general level of analysis and features that are specific for both Russia and the city of residence. The major regional and local effects are mediated by gender and age which allows highlighting the "zones" of particular interest for further research. In particular, the age group of Perm’ residents aged 25–39 is characterized by a high level of aggravation and psychopathy; while the level of depression and hysteria in young under 25 who live in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky is much lower than in other age groups in this city and other cities. Another interesting question concerns the psychological reasons of the flattening of gender differences in hypochondria, depression, hysteria, psychasthenia, social introversion scores in Moscow and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The data are discussed in terms of the impact of socio-economic factors in different cities and further studies that are needed to explain social and psychological causes of these effects.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.