Когнитивный инсайт и динамика симптомов ультравысокого риска по шизофрении у больных с непсихотическими формами психических расстройств в юношеском возрасте
Youth are, by definition, the future. This book brings initial analyses to bear on youth in the five BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, which are home to nearly half of the world's youth. Very little is known about these youth outside of their own countries since the mainstream views on "youth" and "youth culture" are derived from the available literature on youth in the industrialized West, which is home to a small part of the world's youth. This book aims to help fill in this gap.
The handbook examines the state of youth, their past, present and permits the development of insights about future. The BRICS countries have all engaged in development processes and some remarkable improvements in young people's lives over recent decades are documented. However, the chapters also show that these gains can be undermined by instabilities, poor decisions and external factors in those countries. Periods of economic growth, political progress, cultural opening up and subsequent reversals rearticulate differently in each society. The future of youth is sharply impacted by recent transformations of economic, political and social realities. As new opportunities emerge and the influence of tradition on youth's lifestyles weakens and as their norms and values change, the youth enter into conflict with dominant expectations and power structures.
The topics covered in the book include politics, education, health, employment, leisure, Internet, identities, inequalities and demographics. The chapters provide original insights into the development of the BRICS countries, and place the varied mechanisms of youth development in context. This handbook serves as a reference to those who are interested in having a better understanding of today's youth. Readers will become acquainted with many issues that are faced today by young people and understand that through fertile dialogues and cooperation, youth can play a role in shaping the future of the world.
This book offers a comprehensive review of how social relationships foster well-being and health at various stages of life. By explicitly focusing on three main stages of a person’s life, this book guides the reader through the influences of social relationships on the quality of life in adolescence, adulthood, and old age. Moreover, the book investigates the causal, very often psychological, mechanisms linking social relationships with quality of life. Building on the works of economists, sociologists, communication experts, psychologists and public health experts, this book provides an in-depth description of the possible mechanisms that make social relationships pivotal in people’s life.
dance4life is a globally active organization within the fields of HIV, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and the Millennium Development Goals, specifically aiming to establish a social youth movement consisting of 1 million agents4change by 2014. The central mission of dance4life is to power a movement that creates change at global and community level by taking action to improve young people’s SRHR, and in particular, improving access to sexuality education and youth-friendly services, and to challenge stigma and discrimination and break down taboos that surround sexuality, especially focusing on HIV and AIDS. KIT was invited to partner with dance4life on an impact assessment of dance4life’s work, with a focus on mixed methods and the involvement of the young people themselves. The assessment took place in two countries: Uganda and Russia. A pilot study was undertaken in the Netherlands to test the qualitative research instruments.
Research shows the importance of methodological issues in the study of young Russians during the current economic slump. A critical analysis of the indicators of the social and economic situation of young people in Russia shows the need to include the concept of lifestyle and its influence of the choices made by young people and their parents.
The article is devoted to analysis of approaches to disability in quality of life and well-being studies. Disability is analyzed from the point of view of different research contexts – clinical, social, cultural, historical, positive. As a rule, the studies were performed in the format of the classical methodologies, and they consider the quality of life of people with disabilities from the point of view of the various deficiencies and negative consequences of disability. We propose to understand these effects as conditions, which influence the life disability people, however, are not as the main determinants of their quality of life and subjective well-being. Synthesis of the modern approaches of psychology of personality with the potential of the cultural-historical paradigm allows to overcome the existing methodological dead-ends, associated with exaggeration of the role of limitations in life with disability. Thus, the question of one's quality of life it is possible to raise not only on social groups level, but also on personality level. We substantiated the opportunity and potential of the study of disability as one of the "complicated conditions" of personality development.
This article addresses the questions, What do children in urban areas do on Saturdays? What type of organizational resources do they have access to? Does this vary by social class? Using diary data on children’s activities on Saturdays in the Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale metropolitan area, the authors describe the different types of venues (households, businesses, public space, associations, charities, congregations, and government/tribal agencies) that served different types of children. They find that the likelihood of using a charity or business rather than a government or tribal provider increased with family income. Also, the likelihood of using a congregation or a government facility rather than business, charity, or household increased with being Hispanic. The authors discuss implications for the urban division of labor on Saturdays and offer research questions that need further investigation.
In article features of national and confessional self-identification of the Russian youth as parts of the title nation are considered. Ethnic and national consciousness are analyzed as significant components of process of individual and group self-identification. Research covers the studying and working youth which is arrived and which initially living in the city. The youth is the object which studying allows to predict regularities of social development in the future. Consideration of a problem considers multi-confessional, multi-ethnic and boundary in the geographical relation character of Ural as region. The emphasis is placed on specifics of behavior of representatives of title nation, as youth considerably defining a social portrait. The concept of the big city is used as steady, allocated with a number of characteristic features. Authors establish the reasons of the reduced interest to a religious and ethnic identification of with group at the young people belonging to different social groups and united by residence in the large city. The conditions necessary for an intensification of process of identification are defined. Means of updating of processes of formation of identity of youth are offered.
The paper observes the main patterns of youth consumption and leisure in contemporary Russia. It relies on the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE, a set of nationally representative household-based surveys which includes data collected from 1994 to 2013. The data shows that by 2010 the level of youth consumption has risen along with the households’ overall income and expenditure. Since financial problems were alleviated, there was a redistribution of time between work and leisure, so youth turned to the active cultural consumption, including non-entertainment services. However, the total increase in products and services consumed went hand in hand with the rise of differentiation in the availability of durables, patterns of consumption and leisure practices.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.