Занятость матерей в первые годы жизни ребенка: обзор исследований ее влияния на развитие детей
This study evaluates an employment promotion program for mothers with children under age 3 based on professional training provision in Moscow, Russia. First, the authors assess the program based on existing theoretical approaches and international experience. The authors conclude that professional training programs are one of the basic elements of active employment policies. However, such programs are insufficient for parents with small children if not complemented by cooperation with employers and the development of childcare services. Second, the authors characterize the scope and the clientele of current maternal employment programs in Moscow. Using statistics from the Moscow employment service, they demonstrate that the demand for the program gradually increased 2013–2016. Finally, the paper contains an overview of the current constraints to the successful implementation of the program, and desired changes to its format based on evidence from a qualitative survey with the program’s potential clients conducted by the authors. The analysis of in-depth interviews reveals a specific demand for courses on basic and advanced computer skills, and a few highly specialized training programs. The primary aim of such training for mothers is gaining a competitive advantage in the labor market in the area of their expertise or improving their curriculum vitae. Requests for a complete change of occupation or obtaining completely new qualifications are rare. In the concluding part, the authors summarize the results and discuss the prospects of current employment stimulation programs for mothers.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.