An increasing number of policymakers in developing countries have made the mass expansion of upper-secondary vocational education and training (VET) a top priority. The goal of this study is to examine whether VET fulfills the objectove of building skills and abilities along multiple dimensions and further identify which school-level factors help vocational students build these skills and abilities. To fulfill this goal, we analyzed representative, longitudinal data that we collected on more than 12,000 students from 118 schools in once province of central China. First, descriptive analysis shows approximately 90% of VET students do not make any gains in vocational or general skills. In addition, negative behaviors (misbehavior in the classroom, anti-social behavior, and other risky behaviors) are highly prevalent among VET students. A nontrivial proportion of student internships also fail to meet minimum government requirements for student safety and well-being. Perhaps as a result of these outcomes, more than 60% of students express dissatisfaction with their VET programs, as evidenced by eitehr self-reports or dropping out. Finally, using a multi-level model, we find that school inputs (such as school size, teacher qualifications, and per pupil expenditure) are not correlated with vocational and general skill at the end of the school year, or student dropout in the academic year.
The article is dedicated to the study of problems faced by deaf and hearing-impaired students in the process of vocational education. The analysis is based on the All-Russian survey of deaf and hearing-impaired students in colleges and vocational schools, conducted as face-to-face questionnaire, as well as 21 semi-formalized interviews with students and experts. The history of vocational education of people with hearing impairments in Russia has more than 200 years and today the strategy of obtaining secondary vocational education is the main one for young people with hearing impairments, and their career choice (application decision) is usually well thought out.
On the one hand, changes in the deaf and hearing impaired vocational training system in recent years (introducing inclusive education system, expanding the list of available professions, etc.) open up new opportunities for people with hearing disabilities, and on the other hand, require revising the main approaches to work with this group, which entails the emergence of various problems, which are common for any transitional period. The main problem that students themselves are talking about is a narrow corridor of opportunities to choose a specialty, narrowed down in some cases artificially because of colleges’ wish to unite all deaf students in one direction, and also because of colleges unwillingness to work with the deaf. The problem is that informants have an administrative barrier and the need to obtain an individual program of rehabilitation or habilitation, which determines individual restrictions on admission to work. Informants also talk about low quality of school education, problems of certification in correctional educational institutions, the lack of sign language interpreters, as well as low level of training of teachers. However, informants associate the most serious difficulties with the lack of career perspectives and mechanisms for institutionalized support for the employment of deaf people through college or other organizations.
More and more middle school graduates opt for vocational schools every year. They are normally less academically successful students from lower economicand cultural backgrounds. Still, the vocational education system must provide the chance to have a quality general education to anyone who follows this trajectory after the ninth grade. The article uses findings of the Trajectories in Education and Careers longitudinal study to compare the important conditions of obtaining a general mathematical education, i. e. the professional and demographic characteristics of vocational and high school teachers and their teaching practices. The comparison reveals an inequality in students’ access to educational resources depending on the chosen trajectory.The differences revealed are related to the institutional characteristics of the two trajectories and make it possible to say that the latter embrace different types of general education.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.