Распределение богатства и политический конфликт в модели перехода от стагнации к развитию
We propose a two-sector unified growth model, in which the speed of industrialization depends on the outcome of political conflict between the heterogeneous interest groups differing with respect to capital and land ownership. The distribution of capital and land determines agents’ political preferences and their incentives to invest in lobbying for development or blocking modern sector development. The probability that pro-growth policies are realized depends on the aggregate lobbying of two competing groups. We demonstrate that higher concentration of land ownership hampers the development of the modern sector, while higher concentration of capital ownership within the landless agents increases political support of pro-growth reforms and increases the pace of industrialization. Our model also explains the non-monotonous dynamics of political conflict intensity, which corresponds well with structural changes and GDP per capita growth observed in historical data.
This book provides a unique and timely analysis of the role of structural change in the economic development of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) with a consideration for the role of industry, and in particular manufacturing. The emergence of BRICS reflects an ongoing change in the international economic order. BRICS now account for very substantial part of global GDP, global manufactured value added and global manufactured exports. The book examines their economic experiences and structural change in BRICS over the past three decades, identifying both differences and commonalities, and deriving lessons for other industrializing countries. Section I contains comparative studies focusing on the commonalities and differences of the experiences of BRICS. Section II includes six country studies providing a more detailed analysis of the long-run experiences of each of the countries. Section III consists of a set of seven thematic studies focusing on specific topics such as global value chains, the role of transnational corporations in the food chain, the role of foreign versus domestic investment, the role of domestic versus foreign demand in economic growth the diffusion of environmental energy technology and the similarities, and the differences in industrial policies pursued in the five countries. The book contains a summary chapter that provides an integrated perspective of the various contributions from the point of view of poverty reduction and development. It asks, whether the patterns of structural change and industrial development that BRICS experienced, had an impact on poverty outcomes, and if so, what where the channels and the consequences?
The article shows that in the USSR the incidence of venereal diseases was due to social and economic conditions of the "world of capitalism", including financial insecurity that caused women to prostitution, alcoholism and corrupting influence of erotic literature, art and cinema.Venereal diseases, as an inevitable companion of the "capitalist lifestyle", have gained not only social, but also openly expressed class character. Utilitarian-class approach to this area has kept almost the entire period of Soviet power, and in the 1990s founded a management principle to deal with the investigation (distribution of disposable syringes and personal contraception), and not the cause of the phenomenon was transferred into the practice of AIDS prevention.
The materials on the subject “Immigration in France” are prepared on the basis of the website www.histoire-immigration.fr. They help students of non-linguistic higher educational establishments to form the idea of the major stages of French immigration and study in detail the related lexis.
The given materials are aimed to draw students’ attention to the principal problems in the French society, to develop tolerance to migrants, forced migrants and refugees.
The paper deals with an axiological dimension in discourse studies. It presents different theories of values in Russian and European scientific research, focuses on the heuristic potential of values and value studies for discourse analyses. Specifically, the two traditional strategies in political discourse, i.e. identification and out-casting, are analyzed vis-à-vis the category of value. It is contended that values are integrated in discourse, with ‘discourse’ construed as a ‘way of speaking which gives meaning to experiences from a particular perspective’. Values are defined as notions about ideal states of affairs tied to specific social practices as instantiated in their respective discourses in the abovementioned sense. These discourse-specific values, as common-sense, taken-for-granted, notions of excellence, control verbalization processes. An ‘out-group’ is thus always represented textually out of the discourse-driven system of values of an in-group. An in-group system of values pre-frames word choice, attitudes and evaluations in a text/texts, with an out-group system of values being automatically ruled out.
Why do some countries become democracies, while others move from one nondemocratic regime to another? Post-communist transformations in the countries of the former Soviet Union could be viewed as a “natural experiment” in regime change: the politics of post-Soviet states demonstrate a great diversity. In this article, I present a partial theory of post-Soviet regime change and attempt to explain the outcomes of elite conflicts in post-Soviet states and their consequences for regime change. The account of political transformations in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus will outline certain common features and peculiarities of regime change in each case and provide several implications for comparative studies of regime change.
The chapter explores the structural change in Russian economy during the last 20 years since the beginning of transition from planned to market economy. We focus the study on the role and place of manufacturing industry in generation of jobs and incomes and on major internal and external factors responsible for those changes using mostly official data from the national statistical agency. We show that in general this period can be described as a period of deindustrialization and the share of manufacturing has been diminishing both in terms of its input in GDP and, in particular, in providing employment and incomes. We describe how various combinations of economic and political factors determined the manufacturing industry development at different sub-periods and argue that the domineering process was the passive adjustment of Russian enterprises to global competition by cutting down inefficient job-places and production lines. While this restructuring was accompanied by significant growth of labour productivity the rates of technological modernization were insufficient to increase competitiveness of majority of firms and to increase and diversify Russian manufacturing export due mostly to inefficient state policy for creating a favourable investment climate and to attract domestic and foreign direct investments to Russian manufacturing sector.
Russia, industrialization, manufacturing, economic policy, institutional development
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.