Временность и причинность в контексте проблемы оснований сознательного опыта
The article analyzes the relationship between temporality and causality as connections that form the structure of conscious experience. It is traditional for phenomenology and transcendental philosophy to posit temporality as a fundamental characteristic that determines the existence of consciousness. According to D. Hume, perceptions succeed each other and nothing persists through change. For I. Kant, every synthesis is built as a necessary condition of time-consciousness. In E. Husserl’s theory of constitution the content of my current experience is shaped on the basis of the quasi-temporal flow. For M. Heidegger, ‘original temporality’ determines the horizon of Being. According to J. P. Sartre, time is a condition of possibility of consciousness as existing at a distance from itself.
However, the attribution of fundamentality to the temporal flow leads to a simplified understanding of causality. Suppose that the temporal flow of consciousness is an immediately given basis of conscious experience; then there is no need to consider a causal relationship as a connection that explains emerging of new contents of consciousness and their order. Since new contents are delivered and ordered by the temporary flow, the question of the conditions of newness is not posed. According to Hume, causality arises from a habit of the mind to a repeated sequence of experiences. In Kant’s view, causality is a rule that gives the sequence an objective character. Husserl referring to non-obviousness of causal laws diminishes the role of causation in consciousness. The assumption about the priority of temporality in comparison with causality directs poststructuralist thought (the most typical example is the concept of J. Derrida).
As the author shows, the abyss between the idea and its embodiment, between the mental and the physical world, and also the impossibility to find a place for freedom in the phenomenal world are results of primacy of temporality over causality.