Практики самосохранительного поведения как приоритет государственной политики здравоохранения
This paper models the proximate determinants of height, weight and haemoglobin concentration of over 25,000 Indian children using data from the National Family Health Survey-3. The effects of public and private health care service utilization, food consumption patterns and maternal health status on child health were investigated in a multidisciplinary framework. Methodological issues such as potential endogeneity of explanatory variables and the appropriateness of combining height and weight as the body mass index were tackled. The results from models for children’s heights and weight showed beneficial effects of child vaccinations against DPT, polio and measles, and negative effects of not utilizing government health facilities. The models for children’s haemoglobin concentration indicated beneficial effects of food consumption patterns and treatment against intestinal parasites. The results provide several insights for improving child health in India.
The paper examines an effect of the return to human capital on health behavior. An approach is assumed in the paper which implies that health is an investment good complimentary for human capital. The latter is treated as actual skills and knowledge yielding a bonus above earnings. We propose a model relating health demand to human capital. According to the model, human capital determines health behavior via the expected effect of health on the return to human capital. The main implication of the model is that the educated people will not much differ from those lacking any education with regard to health behavior if their education does not generate the bonus.
Sensation seeking (Zuckerman, 1971) can be seen as personality trait representing the psychological basis of adaptation strategies, formed in evolution. Higher sensations seeking (SS) is associated with reproductive behavior (Farthing, 2005 ; Cooping et al., 2013 ). Sensation-seeking correlates with status and reputation, higher SSis associated with short-term relationship (Egorova et al., 2013 ). The study sample was 280 students , ages 18-20 years . The following characteristics are assessed: sensation seeking (thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, disinhibition, boredom susceptibility, intelligence seeking, novelty avoidance) psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989) and health protecting behavior (leisure time , drinking and smoking). Higher level of sensation-seeking was found in men sample. This allows us to consider SS as the trait contributing to reproductive behavior. Men with higher levels of SS tend to be more preferred partners. Sensation-seeking is negatively associated with a preference for sports as leisure time, regardless of gender. «Intelligence seeking», «novelty avoidance» positive correlate with a tendency to consume high strength alcohol and with smoking. Psychological well-being scales: «positive relations with others» and «personal growth» has negative correlations with the «general sensation-seeking», «experience seeking» and «thrill and adventure seeking». The facts suggest that high sensation-seeking acts in the opposite manner to different adaptive strategies . High SS leads to a focus on short-term relationship and simultaneously to low health-protecting behavior. This situation can be regarded as a preference for the traditional strategy of adaptation in terms of evolutionary psychology. Low SS on the contrary would lead to a preference strategy aimed at preserving themselves and long-term relationship. This study was supported by an Program of Strategic development of Perm state humanitarian-pedagogical university, project No. 26-F
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.