Российская социологическая мысль: ключевые концепции в свете когнитивной теории
Within international social thought the Russian sociological tradition has certain peculiarities inspired by its historical origins, its structural place in humanities generally, and its practical involvement in social transformation. It is also marked by its holistic perception of social phenomena and crises, state-society relations, crime and punishment, and personality. The backbone of such theoretical constructions is the ethical idea that intellectuals bear the legal, social and moral responsibility for social developments. Contrary to Western sociological theories this element of the Russian tradition changed the interpretation of many classical issues in sociology substantially, and determined the prevailing interest in the study of contradictions between static and dynamic forms of regulation, the circulation of social frames, positive law and justice (legal dualism), extra-legal forms of property relations, behaviour, and deviation. An effective reconstruction of these key positions of the Russian sociological thought is possible on the basis of cognitive theory—a new theoretical approach which emphasizes the role of psychological attitudes of individuals and social groups in the process of cognitive adaptation and purpose-oriented behaviour. All these aspects of the Russian sociological heritage have been largely neglected by scholars, although they are highly relevant for understanding the revolutionary transformations in the 20th century, as well as social experiments in the post-Soviet era.