Bi-hemispheric effects on corticospinal excitability induced by repeated sessions of imagery versus observation of actions.
PURPOSE: To investigate whether repeated sessions of motor imagery and action observation modulate corticospinal excitability (CE) over time, whether these processes are susceptible of any training effect and if such effect might be different for the dominant and non dominant hemisphere. METHODS: 11 subjects underwent three sessions, spaced 5-7 days, of single-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) of right and left primary motor cortex. Subjects were asked to imagine or observe pinch-grip actions with either hand. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded bilaterally from the First Dorsal Interosseus muscle (FDI), acting as main agonist during precision grip. RESULTS: Motor imagery consistently enhanced CE with respect to action observation, regardless of hemispheric lateralization and of separate testing sessions. However, motor imagery increased CE only when measured over the non-dominant hemisphere, during the third session with respect to the first one. The increase of CE induced by action observation in the first session was not further modified throughout the remaining two sessions, in either hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that motor imagery is sustained by a cortical network susceptible to training effects only for the non-dominant hemisphere. Such an effect was lacking for action observation, likely because of the innateness of these mechanisms. Results might have implications for rehabilitative purposes.
There is shown the importance of the society scientific enrichment, enlightenment with the anthropological and environmental knowledge, of education and training, to cultivate the feelings of unity, nobleness, justice and equity, ethics and aesthetics, life base common for everyone, including the one of religious view, in the article. Also there are examined some cases, when the scientific, educational or religious activity is accompanied by the dependent condition, which means exploitation, in the work. The author scrutinizes the issues of freedom from such exploitation infringement counteraction, including the criminal law measures.
Training and development of employees is one of the main directions of the HR-manager in the organization. The textbook describes the description and analysis of training as one of the methods of training and development of personnel. The structure of the textbook includes methodological and methodical aspects of training as a method of development of the individual, group, organization. Each section contains questions for self-examination and practical assignments.
The textbook is intended for students studying in the areas of "Management", "Business Management", "Personnel Management", "Psychology of Personality",as well as other socio-economic areas.
Editors Neal Chalofsky, Tonette Rocco, and Michael Lane Morris have compiled a collection of chapters sponsored by the Academy of Human Resource Development that provide revolutionary insight into the concepts, theories, research initiatives, and practical applications essential to HRD. Topics range from HRD foundations, workforce development, and management to more specific topics such as implementing and managing HRD initiatives in the organization. The chapters are written by professionals who offer a wide range of experience and who represent the industry from varying international and demographic perspectives. The questions addressed include:
• Nationally and internationally, how does HRD stand with regard to academic study and research?
• What is its place in the professional world?
• What are the philosophies, values, and critical perspectives driving HRD forward?
• What theories, research initiatives, and other ideas are required to understand HRD and function successfully within this field?
• As the industry grows, what are the challenges and important issues that professionals expect to face? What hot topics are occupying these professionals now?
The author analyzes linguistic, psychological and pedagogical peculiarities of prepared monological utterance on professional and scientific topics in a foreign language. On the basis of the analysis the author designs techniques of prepared monological skills development for non-language students.
The concept and aim of evidence-based entrepreneurship (EBE) is discussed as a strategy to overcome the divide between knowledge developed in the field of entrepreneurship and its use in practice. We argue that meta-analyses can and should be used in entrepreneurship research (and that it should also be used for qualitative work).
The results of research of different areas of personality of homeless men: values, life attitudes, activity, homelessness area is presents. The data indicate the presence of a number of characteristics inherent in varying degrees all homeless people. The data obtained can be used to build an effective program of psychological re-socialization of homeless people.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.