Возможности и ограничения занятости женщин в Москве
The article considers specifics of the economic activity of women in Moscow. It examines two groups of women – mothers raising children of different age and women in working age without children under 18. The analysis is based not only on the indicators of employment and unemployment, but also on the comparison of their professional skills and positions, working conditions, wish to have a job, need for vocational training, and other employment constraints. The empiric data from the study «Moscow and Muscovites» (2014) makes it possible to identify the services provided to population by employment agencies, which are primarily needed by the unemployed women with children, to answer the question: What is more important for them — assistance in job search or psychological adaptation to workplace, vocational training/retraining or assistance in starting own business?
The article is devoted to a new type of educational programs that are formed at the intersection of higher and secondary education. Education as an institute is seen as an instrument of social stratification of society. The authors analyze the major developments of education as an institute, for instance differentiation between of academic and vocational educational programs and the creation of programs of production a “Homo habilis” — a skilled performer. Changes in the vocational education system are considered in the light of the introduction of the new educational standards FSES 2011 (Federal State Educational Standards).
Export is not the only driver of growth that helped German economy to revive fast after the Great Recession 2008-09. As important was the package of reforms Agenda 2010 aimed at liberalization of labour market. It made employment relations more flexible inter alia by deregulation of non-standard employment. Atypical forms of employment facilitate labour market entry for recruits and long-term unemployed, they increase the scope of flexibility for both employees and business and help employers to satisfy the fluctuating labour demand. The spread of atypical employment relationship strongly contributed to German employment boom, so called “Jobwunder”, and currently Germany shows a record level of employment and quite low unemployment rate. At the same time atypical employment may cause an increase in various social risks, low-wage jobs explosion and precarisation. Still, it would be misleading to identify precarious work and non-standard employment because of the heterogeneity of the latter.
This paper gives an overview of specific features of the atypical employment in Germany, deals with its development dynamics and evaluates negative and positive effects on labour market.
Business Studies practice listening tasks which are based on authentic sources, specially designed for the English state exam of the 4th year Public Administration students.
Job plays one of the most important roles in every day life. It is even more important to have stable job with regular payment. Many developed and developing countries have been watching a constant decline of stable jobs during the last 20 years.
The first reasons for job stability growth/decline are economic changes and institutional background. Both Russia and East Germany experienced transformational processes to the market economy in the beginning of 1990s; great work reallocation has been a key concern for both countries throughout the early 90s as well as new setting of the institutional background. The two countries had much in common before the reforms started: they both were planned economies with almost 100% employment, stable work places and rigid mobility. Nevertheless each of them went its own way through all the changes.
In this paper the public-private wage gap is estimated by means both of the OLS and the quantile regression, which will provide a more complex picture of the distribution of the public-private sector wage gap. The author finds the existence of significant public-private wage gap (about 30%) considering both observable and unobservable characteristics of workers and jobs. Using the decomposition based on quantile regression helps to answer the question about the nature of the wage differences. The author comes to the conclusion that the main reason for the gap is the institutional mechanisms of public sector wages in Russia. The analysis is based on the data from Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) 2000-2010.
Youth unemployment is at present a crucial issue in the EU policy agenda, as well as in the agenda of other developed and developing countries. The economic crisis, which began in mid-2008, has had severe effects on EU and Eastern Europe labour markets and especially on young people. The key aim of this introductive chapter is to review and present the contributions included in the book, that is the upshot of the EU IRSES project “The political economy of youth unemployment”. It also summarizes the most relevant articles already published by the authors involved in the EU project.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.