The article offers the analyses of communication maturity evaluation of the companies operating in Kaluga region. The evaluation was performed by company survey and expert interviews based on the Communication Maturity Model developed by the author. The model determines the level of development of the key communication factors driving labor efficiency and adaptability to market changes. The use of the Communication Maturity Model allows companies to have its communication environment assessed and to develop precise recommendations on how to improve human capital effectiveness. The article analyses typical regional maturity models for different economic sectors as well as maturity level of every component based on the practice of the surveyed regional companies.
The present article gives estimation of the number of Russian-speaking communities abroad, as well as approximate assessment of the compatriots’ potential for migration to the Russian Federation from three main Central Asian countries — Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. The authors analyze some results of the implementation of the programme for resettlement of compatriots in the context of the current migration policy of the Russian Federation. They consider the regional specifics of the compatriots’ settlement in Russia, as well as the regional features of the implementation of the resettlement programme. They also identify the main factors ‘pushing’ compatriots out of the Central Asian countries and the ‘attracting’ factors in Russia.
The article considers specifics of the economic activity of women in Moscow. It examines two groups of women – mothers raising children of different age and women in working age without children under 18. The analysis is based not only on the indicators of employment and unemployment, but also on the comparison of their professional skills and positions, working conditions, wish to have a job, need for vocational training, and other employment constraints. The empiric data from the study «Moscow and Muscovites» (2014) makes it possible to identify the services provided to population by employment agencies, which are primarily needed by the unemployed women with children, to answer the question: What is more important for them — assistance in job search or psychological adaptation to workplace, vocational training/retraining or assistance in starting own business?
The article deals with fertility in the Republic of Dagestan, which markedly differs from the Russian average in fertility timing: the mean age of mother at the first childbirth in Dagestan is not rising and remains at a relatively low level. And there are significant differences between the ethnic groups in the republic that from the point of the demographic theory seems quite unexpected against the background of the ongoing modernization changes in the republic. Based on the analysis of the data from the AllRussian population census — 2010 and from the survey conducted by the authors in Dagestan, the article shows that the ethnic differences in the age of mothers at the first childbirth are remaining, even among women with high education level and younger age cohorts. Lack of neutralization of the ethnic differences by the character of childbearing in the educated groups of population is quite a rare phenomenon that needs a special explanation. Its possible social and cultural origins are the subject of discussion.
The article presents comparisons of the ages and facts of the occurrence of starting demographic events, based on the results from three big surveys carried out in Russia: ‘European Social Survey’ — 2006, ‘Generations and Gender Survey’ — 2004, 2007, 2011, and ‘Human, Family, Society’ — 2013. The research was devoted to inter-generation and gender differences in the start of sexual debut, first partnership, marriage, and a birth of the first child.
Analysis of the obtained data shows that the maximum number of starting demographic events takes place at the age under 35. In the average biography the first event is a start of sexual life, then follow matrimonial events, and the last event is a birth of the first child. The greatest gender and generational differences are observed in matrimonial behavior: the popularity of unregistered unions is much higher among the younger generations than among their predecessors, and their interest in marriage is much lower. Men enter into marriage and partnership about year or two later than women. In reproductive behavior, there are more gender differences than generational: men are more inclined to postpone a birth of a child. This is because women wish to give birth to the first child in the reproductively healthy age, and men prefer to postpone both getting the first child and entering the first marriage.
The article considers assisted reproductive technologies (ART) as modern instruments of demographic policy in European countries with low fertility. A special consideration is given to programmes of 'in vitro fertilization' (IVF), which give childless couples an opportunity to have children and thus contribute to raising fertility rates. The cost of ART is significantly lower than that of other measures for raising fertility. Therefore, these technologies have good prospects as a constituent part of the demographic policy in Russia.
Length of life in Russia has been decreasing already for 40 years. According to the Programme of Action adopted by the Cairo International Conference on Population in 1994, all countries should commit themselves to raise life expectancy for both sexes above 70 by 2005. It is already clear, that by the year 2005 Russia will not even come near to this goal.At the best it will succeed in reaching the life expectancy recommended for the countries with the highest mortality - 65 years. Child mortality in Russia is declining but at a very low pace. But the case of adult mortality is even worse. High mortality rates result from an insufficient control over many, mainly exogenous causes of death. The general structure of the causes of death remains archaic in many respects. The authors are of the opinion, that demographic losses from high mortality are comparable to military losses. How can Russia get over the demographic crisis? The authors offer their answer to this complicated question.
This study shows the situation and dynamic of main quality of life (QOL) indicators. The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data 1994-2010 were used (representative sample). Most of QOL indicators decreased in the default period (1998), but then there demonstrate positive dynamic till 2010. However, some individual and social groups’ characteristics were a fairly low level, especial for the older people. One-third of Russians are not satisfied with their lives in 2010, and people over 50 years more than any other. Representatives of any socio-demographic group in any years may be satisfied with life, while have good health, possibility of employment and job satisfaction, good financial situation, getting new impressions and a high level of social capital, which includes communication, understanding and support.
Rural development has been and remains a relevant government task. Dynamic structural and technological changes in the agricultural sector lead to the need of reassessing the mutual influence of the level of development of agricultural production and rural areas. The study deals with quantitative assessment of the dependence of rural population size as an integral indicator of socio-economic well-being of rural areas on selected factors and indicators that characterize the level of agricultural development, its sectoral specifics and the structure of agricultural producers. Empirical estimates were obtained from panel data of municipal districts in Leningrad oblast for 2012–2018. The greatest positive impact on the rural population size among the considered characteristics of agriculture is determined for the factor of sown areas that is associated with the specifics of agricultural sub-sectors, their different needs for such factors as land and labor, the development potential for small-scale farming. It was found that the concentration of agricultural production in the large commercial sector has a negative impact on the rural population size. This is explained by difference in employment dynamics and redistribution of resources between categories of agricultural producers. Modeling results showed that agrarian subsidies received by agricultural producers have a statistically insignificant impact on rural population that justifies the need to adjust the orientation and forms of agricultural state support to achieve a synergetic effect on rural development.
The purpose of the article is to assess the effectiveness of Russian health care system on the basis of modern analysis tools, in particular, the effective frontier modeling (SFA –Stochastic Frontier Analysis). SFA is the dependence of the average life expectancy on the result of expenditure in health care, the average number of years of study and health risk factors as explanatory variables. Currently, there is a significant difference between Russian madical care system and health maintenance in developed countries. The method used assumes the modelling of a health production function that allows to assess how the irrational use of resources affects various health indicators by evaluating the parameters of the health production function. The result of the function is average life expectancy indicator, which represents a linear dependence of a set of explanatory variables. The results of the data collected from 11 countries for the period from 2000 to 2013 show the direct dependence between average life expectancy and income inequality measured by Ginny coefficient, and the reverse relationship between dependent variable and income per capita and the share of public expenditure on health in the total expenditure. In conclusion, based on the model recommendations for improving health care system in Russia have been developed. For example, the introduction of a system of population co-payment for a certain service liver; the creation of a unified system for the use of resources and management in the medical field; the development of public-private partnership in the health sector, the balance of financing medical expenses by the federal and regional budgets will contribute the effectiveness of the health care system.
The article analyses the experience of social support of mothers and children in Russian
regions. Family policy in the regions is characterized by a variety of measures, approaches
and directions of activity. A special part is assigned to social assistance for families with
many children and to regional maternity capital which is enacted into law in 73 RF subjects
and is granted only to families with many children. And the range of its application is significantly
wider then provided for by the federal law, as this more corresponds with the needs of