Совершенствование информационного обеспечения деятельности муниципалитетов
The current system of state statistics does not cover the needs of local self-government and often does not reflect the actual conditions on municipality for many reasons [3, 4]. At the system of government administration it leads to the fact that the quantity of provided for carrying out social services resources do not correspond with the existing demand for them. Such satiation is also exacerbated by significant redundant and duplicating activities (the collection of the same municipal indicators by several executive agencies). The last phenomenon causes the growth of bureaucracy, reduces its transparency and increases the number of collisions in statistics.
In order to find the solution of outlined problems the field research was carried out. More than 160 civil servants from 5 federal subjects of Russia illustrated the characteristics of data collection and analysis. The revealed during the survey reasons of the used indicators unrepresentativeness are formulated in this article.
The final chapter of the analysis of the results of Census Russia- 2010
The measurement of quality of life on municipality level is necessary for effective economic policy performance evaluation. The article presents the results of a study of municipal statistics data which is aimed at finding economic indicators related to quality of life within municipalities. Following an established methodology, the authors analyze available information on households’ income, consumption and wealth. The authors have examined open municipal statistics sources and found significant limitations of them. A number of indicators of wage, the retail trade volume and housing is suggested for municipal quality of life index to be constructed allowing for possible access to the data.
The article discusses approaches to financing modular educational programmes of General education in the framework of the ideology of per capita financing. Based on the analysis of experience of modernization of financial and economic mechanisms in the system of General образвания, normative-legal analysis, the conditions, allowing to carry out financing of educational programs taking into account the implementation of individual educational modules, was distinguished.
Creating federal specially protected natural areas (FSPNA) is one of the most effective forms of environmental management, which is able to maintain biological and landscape diversity. But the process of FSPNA territory expansion should be governed by a comprehensive assessment of the need to increase the area withdrawn from economic land use. The assessment includes not only the study of territory’s biodiversity value, but also a comprehensive socio-economic analysis of the area under consideration. Using methods of statistical analysis and descriptive statistics we explored the possibility of Rosstat municipalities’ data and other publicly available data, to evaluate the effects of FSPNA creation and development. A methodology for constructing an integral characteristic of a municipality is proposed to develop a socio-economic justification for the organization (or development) of FSPNA. The integral characteristic is built on the basis of the principle component analysis, which is used to assess the sustainable development level of the territories and for data visualization. Nizhny Novgorod region was taken as a research object, since it has a unique set of ecosystems located on its territory. Municipalities of the Nizhny Novgorod region, which are promising for the nature protection activitiesб including development of FSPNA, have been identified. They include a number of municipal entities that previously confirmed their willingness to cooperate. The results of the work can be applied in carrying out similar studies in other regions of the Russian Federation.
In this study we investigated differences in fertility between groups of Russian women with diverse migration biographies. We used the Russian Census 2010 microdata to analyze cohort fertility of women born in 1950-1979. Large size of the country together with its demographic heterogeneity allowed us to differentiate migration patterns both by the move distance and by the combination of fertility regimes in the regions of origin and the regions of destination. The data showed that on average women who live at the place of their birth at the Census moment have fewer children compared to those who have moved to another region during their lives. The highest fertility is observed among the women who moved within their birth region. At the same time the move to the capital regions (i.e. Moscow, Saint Petersburg or their provinces) has strong negative effect on the cohort fertility.
A set of simple linear models estimated within the study revealed that the distance of migration turns out to be insignificant when we include parameters characterizing fertility regimes in the regions of origin and in the regions of destination into the equation. Generally regression analysis proved that internal migration has a positive effect on fertility. Thus, even moving to the regions with lower fertility level increases average number of children per woman in comparison to those who have not migrated at all. On the whole, the higher is fertility in the destination region, the higher is the observed positive effect on cohort fertility of migrated women.
The paper regards an association between conception and official marriage registration in Russian women’s life course. Authors use 2010 vital statistics database on births for a set of regions to analyze marriage registration rates at different months of pregnancy or before it. The study reveals differences in the marital behavior in a state of pregnancy within age groups and also within regions. A registration of out-of-wedlock births basing on joint parent’s application as well as association between this type of conduct and parent’s age gain special attention within this paper. Furthermore, authors examine dynamics of women’s family status during five years after the birth of the first child using 2010 Census data. Results of the study reveal that in Russia high popularity of legitimated births, i.e. marriages set after confirmed pregnancies, persists until now. Age structure of spouses in this type of families and its higher prevalence among first marriages prove this type of wedlock to be a marker of traditionalist demographic behavior. The same hypothesis is supported by the observed high break-up rate amidst recently married couples with young children.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.