Социальная сплоченность: направления теоретической дискуссии и перспективы социальной политики
The article considers social cohesion as a theoretical concept. Drawing on the works of the classics of sociology and modern scholars, the authors reveal different semantic facets of this concept, including a commitment to the common good, or the mechanism of intergroup conflict, a mutual benefit or a resource of understanding, a strategic priority of social policy or a construct of nationalistic discourse. Each of these codes refers to certain theories that vary in their explanation of social order, conditions and mechanisms of cohesion, and to trace their connection with ideologies, doctrines and strategies of social policy. The article presents systematization of analytical approaches and suggests a number of ideas concerning the study of a variety of bases and forms of social cohesion in contemporary Russian society. Сohesion can be conceptualized in the following interrelated dimensions: firstly, as systematic efforts of the main actors, ensuring the well-being of the population and social integration by means of an institutional framework, including institutions and agencies implementing this policy in practice. Social cohesion is both the goal and the means of such policy. Secondly, it can be understood as the prevalence of values of cohesion, its symbolic production, particularly in mass media and popular culture. Third, social cohesion can be identified in the mechanisms of national and in-group mobilization, as well as the formation of the public sphere on the themes of cohesion, trust and inclusion.
The problems of the methodology of measuring the cohesion of local communities are considered. Presented method of qualitative evaluation of cohesion local (neighboring) communities allows us to calculate the integral indicator of cohesion, to make a "portrait" community cohesion at the individual indicators, and to identify the types of social cohesion within the community. Recommendations on the application of the methodology and statistical data processing are given. For scientists and specialists developing problems of social integration, methodology and methods of collecting and analyzing sociological data. It can be used in the educational process with students and postgraduates receiving education in the field of sociology and psychology.
The article examines differences between two Russian regions – Moscow and Bashkortostan – through the following socio-psychological indicators: perceived social capital, trust, civil identity, life satisfaction, and economic attitudes.
It is known that charity, as with any social institution that depends on both external and internal factors. In this article the author analyzes the relationship of charity and the level of development of such internal factors as trust. The analysis was conducted on a global level and at regional level in Russia. The resulting lack of relationship to regional level and its presence in the world say that in Russia at the moment there is no required number of relevant data, based on which one could draw a conclusion about the level of philanthropy.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.