"Шкала мировоззрения": возможности и ограничения
The paper analyzes the method of identifying the worldviews of individuals: its theoretical foundations dating back to the works by M.Douglas (describing four types of cultures – individualistic, hierarchical, egalitarian and fatalistic) and its empirical implementation proposed by S.Rippl. Test-retest reliability of the method and its internal consistency are evaluated with the data from an online-survey. Evaluation of the construct validity of this method is based on the empirical study examining the value of human life. It is shown that a particular type of respondent’s worldview (that is operationalized using a set of normative judgments on various topics – work, family, values, etc.) has a weak effect upon the value that the respondent attributes to the human life. Few cases of the revealed worldview’s influence on judgment (under certain circumstances members of hierarchy evaluate human life higher than individualists and egalitarians are characterized by the highest propensity to save people whose lives are threatened) suggest a low construct validity of the method.
The author refl ects upon the book The Sources of cultural-historical psychology: philosophical-humanitarian context by V. Zinchenko, B. Pruzhinin, T. Schedrina. Moscow, 2010.
The main focus of this paper is the relation between the realisation of the right of the child to express his/her views and democracy in Russia. With this in view, I will study the interconnection between the right to express the views and the right to participate. Further, I will give an overview of the specifics of democracy in Russia, how they influence political participation, and what could be done to prevent the further infantilisation of citizens in Russia. Finally, I will explore traditional perceptions with regard to children’s participation in Russia and the legal framework and practice of the implementation of the child’s right to social and political participation.
The book’s stated objective is to uncover context, “how social capital interacts with social institutions.” It is part of a new wave of research on social capital that, dissatisfied with both macro analyses limited to societal patterns and micro analyses limited to actors’ conditions, seeks to understand the operation of networks at the meso-level: how institutions and organizations structure the transfer of resources across networks. It purports to make both theoretical and methodological contributions, the first by developing the concept of “institutional logics,” the latter by “casting diverse contextual settings as ‘generators’ of social relations”, and studying these contexts from multiple methodological perspectives. (from a review by M. Small)
The article deals with current approaches to research on social-economic impacts of cultural events. A systematic approach is proposed to analysis of services provided within cultural events in behalf of different target groups — stakeholders.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.