Основные подходы к изучению факторов формирования и распространения семей с одним родителем
In this article, author presents basic theoretical approaches in economy, sociology and demography, explaining the phenomenon of single-parenthood. In this paper, the following approaches are described: the theory of marriage (G. Becker), the transactional approach (R. Pollack), the family development theory and the family life cycle concept (E. Duval, R. Hill, P. Glikk), the theory of gender inequality (A. Cherlin) and the theory of the Second demographic transition (R. Lesteg, D. van de Kaa). Although such demographic events as the birth out of the marriage and divorce are the result of a conscious choice of the person, during long time they were considered by researchers as the events breaking normal sequence of stages of family development. The increase of nonmarital birth rate, the growth of the number of divorces and the widespread of cohabitations in the 1980th led to changes in matrimonial and reproductive behavior of people. These changes in behavior caused the revision of the existing approaches to the lonely parenthood, and the renewal of conceptual framework: the term “union” and “cohabitation” began be used together with the term "marriage", and the term "life cycle" was replaced by the term "life course".
The paper analyzes the main trends of consumer markets in the post-crisis period. Particular attention is paid to the manifestation of global trends in Russia. The increasing value systems and lifestyle fragmentation leads to changes in even such fundamental elements of the human society as gender differentiation and models of family life. The growth of popularity of the economical consumption model is accompanied by a drop in loyalty to brands, as well as by increasing popularity of downshifting and minimalism. In these circumstances, those productsthat are able to take immediately into account several consumption trends and offer complete solutions have the best commercial prospects.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.