Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Climate change, water scarcity and food deficit are analyzed in the article within the frameworks of the public goods theory. Special attention is paid to the international cooperation in the given sphere. Mitigation of climate change is global public good and this makes active international collaboration possible, while resistance to water and food scarcity is global merit good that’s why the cooperation is complicated. Transition to the complex mitigation of global problems is considered to be the most efficient way to resolve them.
The article focuses on the influence of global climate change on the world economy. The author points out that this influence is broader than damage from the transformation of environment caused by climate change and involves the variety of issues including impacts on the technological progress and formation of new carbon markets. Special attention is paid to the role of intergovernmental regulation and the composition of climate policy which change as the influence of climate change grows. Climate policy passes to the national level and switches to the priority of adaptation measures.
Analysis of Climate change in Russia
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.