Between PIRLS and PISA: The advancement of reading literacy in a 10–15-year-old cohort
While reading literacy in Russian 10-year-old schoolchildren was exceptionally high in the PIRLS assessment, reading literacy of 15-year-old students as measured by PISA stayed low. To elucidate this controversy, we developed the“Push–Pull”diagnostic method combining PIRLS and PISA approaches. This new tool compares reading literacy across at leastfive years of schooling. With Push–Pull, we assessed grades 4, 6 and 9 (3110 students) and demonstrated that two years of study in Russian middle school (grades 5 and 6) failed to pro-mote students' ability to comprehend informational texts, bringing modest improvement overfive years of schooling. By measuring and monitoring the dynamics of reading literacy, Push–Pull spots the dead ends of Russian educational approach to reading and comprehension of informational texts in 10–15-year-old readers.